Sociology Research Paper on Capitalism and Classical Sociological Theory


Part 1: Value Emphasis, Norms, Sanctions

Values are the shared perceptions on what is correct or erroneous. The values of a society determine the culture and the expected behaviors. For example, a society may value wars and power struggles will always be engaging in war as opposed to a society that values peace. Norms refer to the expected behaviors. Norms are significant in regulation and determining the behavior of the individuals in particular situations. For example, no one has the right to take another person’s life.

 Sanctions are the set remunerations and punishments that help in reinforcing the societal norms. Sanction ensure that a society does not get into chaos. The punishment for the person who kill can be set as a lifetime imprisonment. Norms exist to impose cultural values while sanctions ensure that societal norms are followed.Those to stick to the norms receive positive sanctions. The individual who fail to conform are perceived as a blockage to the attaining of the cultural objectives.

Social Homogeneity, Heterogeneity, Progress

Progressis the law or cause that allows for the renovation of homogeneous into heterogeneous.  For example science has gradually transformed from its corresponding art. Social homogeneity are the active forces that produce more than a single change (Hirst, 2010). It is worth noting that each cause realizes more than one effect. A socially homogeneous group is basically the same in unit and sample. The properties are identical. These include women seminars and organizational manager conferences.

Heterogeneous component’s central objectives of positivism science is discovering robust symmetries across classes of the phenomenon. The symmetries usually presume a homogeneous condition in the aspects over which the symmetries are perceived to obtain.  For example, inter-organizational meetings. A relationship exists between progress, social homogeneity and social heterogeneous in that progress facilitates the passing of matter from an indefinite and incoherent homogeneity to a definite and coherent heterogeneity.  For example, the process by which an ovum is fertilized and eventually develops to a baby who grows to a mature individual.

Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Exploitation

Proletariat refers to the wage-earners’ social class. What soles belongs to the proletarian is their labor-power. At times, the proletariat may earn salary but the salaries are usually too low. An example of the proletariat class are the industrial workers.The bourgeoisie refer to the capital class like the industry owners. The capitalists exploit the wage-earners which leads to conflicts between the two classes.

The wage-earners do not have means of production use the means of production owned by other to be able to produce and be able to earn a living.  Exploitation exists in that the bourgeoisie hire them to produce. This is as opposed to the proletariat’s being able to hire the means of production. The products that are produced belong to the bourgeoisie who sell them at exploitative prices. The relationship between the proletariat is that they depend on the bourgeois to earn a living. On the other hand, the capitalist depend on the wage-earners for labor and production of goods that are sold to the same proletariat as exorbitant prices.

Part 2: The Forms of Social Conflict Discussed by Vilfredo Pareto and Karl Marx.

Class struggle has been in existence since time immemorial. This is majorly because man strives for power and domination which leads to class conflicts. The conflict theories developed by Marx and Pareto explain the accumulation of wealth. Marx argued that struggle is restricted to the bourgeoisie and the proletariats are the basic class in the social conflict.

The Marxists argued that class struggles is a real aspect that is not constrained to the proletariats and bourgeoisie. The struggle exists among an infinite measure of groups that exhibit diverse interests. The interests are among the elites who contend for power. The traits of the groups may permanent or temporary; with the groups varying in the duration of their existence. The exploitation that the wage-earners go through depend on factors like sex, nationality, race and linguistic background. For example, the pain that the wage-earners cannot be compared to the pain that women suffer.

Pareto observed that 80% of the citizens owned extreme riches with a 20% being extremely poor. This spread across all nations. He developed a wealth curve whose bottom portrayed people who were dying out of starvation. The middle of the curve was broad and the persons were in turmoil. Majority of them were rising and falling.  The top was made up of the elite who controlled the wealth and power. Democracy was unrealistic and there doesn’t exist any progress in human history. The nature of humans is emotional, unfruitful and primitive.  The brilliant, smartand stronger individuals take the lion’s share. On the other hand, the weaker become less productive with time.

            In Pareto argument, the Marxist maximize on traditional struggle of the working class that lacks property. He further said that history is filled with struggles and capitalists verses wage-earners is one of the many conflicts.

Marxist and Pareto’s Influence 21st Century Social Life and Social Relations

The Marx and Pareto have little impacts value and capital. This is because Marx emphasized on exposing the traditionally restrained traits if a capitalist society. Today’s economists concentrates on elucidations that naturalize and eternalize Marx’s perceptions. This is despite the fact that Marx’s value theory has a benefit in market relations due to its simplicity and directness.

Businesses conceals a social relationship.  The exchange of goods is a product of labor. This makes them qualitatively distinct. The acts of trade lowers all concrete, particular kinds of labor to abstract and simplified forms. In this case, artificial commensurability is shown by the pricing of products. Money gives a common denominator for products which could be compared. Thus, the use of money by the populace depicts goods and services are an aliquot in terms of social wealth.

At times value is associated wealth. However, the perception that the highly monied individuals claim more wealth does in no way depict a true interrelation between the two. The truth is that wealth and value occur in opposite dimensions. This occurs in aggregate and specific occurrences. The main objective of work is the realization of the greatest levels of wealth with minimal efforts. The value of value resulting from labor should thus be reduced by a reduction of labor.

The higher capabilities which bettering technology and strategies divulge to our labor that a single dollar in the modern world can purchase more than it was able to several decades ago. This can be contrasted by the wage-earners who wages have remained stagnant or reduces since that time.

The craftsmen and small farmers who work tirelessly to better their meager situations of living, they seem to have lost the capability to work as well as their tools and homes. What they have left become a commodity like any other. The prices are resoluted in the same way.

Contrary to the past where the elites used trade as a luxury, the quest of money is perceived as a manifestation of abstract social wealth and a substitute for driving any specific form of wealth. Businesses currently operate on principle that an employee should create more value than is spend on the worker’s wages. This aims at amassing of profits. This is a capitalistic aspect that cuts across the competitive marketplace. 

The businessperson works at attaining total advantage over his rivals. The surplus labor that is offered by the employee can be equated to exploitation. The exploitation can be technical or humanistic. This is the only way that capitalism seems to take form.

Part 3: How the contemporary society would maintain their historical practices and beliefs

Emile Durkheim was concerned on how the contemporary society would maintain their historical practices and beliefs. He focused on how the modern world would remain cohesive. To Emile, the modern world had lost its social forms that were fundamental for social orderliness. He assumed that man is selfish. Collective consciousness is the situation ofthe subject within the entire the community.

In addition, collective consciousness determine how an individual perceives himself as a part of a certain group. Durkheim coined the word due to the desire of learning why individuals acted in a certain manner within a group. He appreciated that social facts should be recognized by the powers of external coercion that is exercised over the person.  The impact of the power is felt by the individuals who violate the set rules. This is done in terms of sanctions. The populace responds in a certain way through a structure of punishments that are enacted at the national and social spheres. This trains the subjects in an inward-outward kind of movement. Though the populace may exhibit certain undesired behaviors, these are corrected through assimilation within the social spheres. This way, both positive and negative reinforcement is implemented.

Collective consciousness affects the learning and training of a subject. The process of being a subject affects the individual’s ability to talk and cat like the neighbors.  The subject who exhibits a level of visible similarity in relation to the societal members is perceived to be socially conscious.

Class-consciousness is a useful tool forunderstanding the subcultures that involve fashion, music and technology fads. Such has been used as a phantasy to distract the proletariat. Technology is being used to intersect with long-standing patterns that characterize man’s behaviors.  For example, the escalating varieties of mobile communication devices affect people dramatically. Humanity adopts to technology and fashion so fast.

Technological products bear properties of cultural goods. Their meaning is embedded in the manner in which they circulate and the nature of diffusion into the public. The encoding of the meaning causes semiotics that are collectively decoded by the receivers.  This leads to a mutual understanding of the intended message.

In addition, the meaning of the style usually represent a connotation in the given cultures. The connectivity magnify the social reach and power and alters the physical circumstances caused by distances. This goes a long way in shaping the boundary that exists between the public and private spaces. For example, the slang has invaded dominant cultures and seeped out of numerous subcultures. Thus is because some words die or become dormant in a dominatingculture for a long time. People express thoughts that are latent in the dominant culture and those thoughts are embraced and used. The term uptight was used by criminal narcotic addicts to mean the onset of withdrawal misery when narcotics were repudiated. Due to journalists’ interest in the drugs, the term is now used in the dominant culture to mean anxiety. The iPad have created certain values and behavioral norms. This leads to distinctive mannerisms like style and demeanor. This leads to the forging of identities and a sense of class.

This is significant in demonstrating the powerful and the powerless. Power is legitimized and the powerless are always oppressed. This is partially because they cannot afford to fit in fashions and purchasing the highly priced Apple products. This forms some group membership for those who fit in the class. Moreover, it constructs views of the world.

Subcultural groupings seem to resist dominant frameworks of cultures and identities. This is done by the interactions that create identity that frame particular routines by constructing social realities. It is worth noting that all social groupings are institutions. The grouping shape established structures that characterize the members in local contexts. The members portray a kind of behavior orientation with reference to the established behaviors. The behaviors perseveres over a period of time.

At times, the individual identity is understood as an idiosyncratic variant in cultural identities.These highly belong to a particular umbrella of culture. This is sub-culture has a way of doing things and symbols formation. The subcultures are established within socialization layers. Aspects such as age. Professionalism and sexuality are considered. A subculture indicates the disappearance of a thought of wholeness and announces the emergence of symbolic violations in social orders. This shows the imposition of resistance as the individual’s distance themselves from human’s other. To them, the societal cultureis false nature. The new perception is that of an authentic expressive skills and style.  In most of the youth subcultures, there exists censorship cause censorship. This basically bears the meaning of subcultures. The styles in a subculture represents the best demonstration of cultural diversity.

Subcultures crystallize, materialize and transmits the experiences of the team while it declines the political bearings. The subcultural styles comprise of an image, music that is enjoyed by the subculture actors, as well as appearance and jargon. The appearance comprises of posture, expression and gesture while the jargon comprises of a special kind of dictionary and pronunciations. This goes a long way transmitting hidden messages and meaning. This is done in a bid to protect their mysterious world.

The hipster subcultures is adopted by individual within the 20’s and 30’s age brackets. These persons value independent of thinking. This subculture counters the societal cultures, appreciates inventiveness and indie-rock, intelligence as well as progressive politics. The subculture rejects the cultural mainstream ignorant attitudes exhibited in buying habits.

 The dress code is characterized by a figure-hugging jeans, old-school gym shoes and wide rimmed glasses.   Both the men and women have androgynous hair styles. These include combined messy shaggy cuts and a disproportionate side-swept bhangs. A lot of misconceptions area associated with the subculture due to their practices especially their tastes. However, the hipsters are well schooled with some holding degrees in Mathematicsand other fields that are need creative analytical thinking capabilities.

Part of the hipster dogma is the influence that comes from advertising and the media. This is because they perceive the media as a form of promoting ethnocentric ideals of what beauty is.  The men as they thin as the women they date. This affects the concept of androgyny and feminism. The American male who is muscular and athletic is not perceived as ideal by the confident and empowered hipster woman. This culture is affecting the society. This is because it creates insecurity and antipathy among the individual of feel that they do not belong to ruling cultural class. Some of the societal members work at keeping up with the Social Changes.

Similarities and Differences of Class-Consciousness and Collective Conscience    

Class consciousness recognizes the key interactions between two classes. Moreover, the classes’ divergent interests and livings standards are noted. The bourgeois create a class that serves its interest. Enmity arises where the working class become conscious of the similarity of their interests of the capital elites.  While class consciousness leads to the individual performing similar chores and having the same traits have a way they perceive one another.

On the other hand, the concept of collective conscience appreciates that norms, dogmas, authorizations, principles, codes and values were critical for the moral stability of the society. Emile argued that these interactions hold the community together. This calls for homogeneity in the society. With time, collective conscience leads to organic solidarity and the society becomes more solid.

The social bonding in collective conscious set up in based on resemblance. This is as opposed to collective conscience where the social bonding is based on interdependence. This is because the members in the society depended on one another (Bratton, Denham, & Deutschmann, 2009).For example; the citizens rely on governmental organization for the criminals to be punished.

The reasons why I find SOCI 100A an interesting course

This course offers educational outcomes that cannot only be evaluated in terms of academic achievement. This is because it offers insights into societal aspects that are of great importance as well as offering a successful transition into the employment world after school. As a student it is important that you look exam scores that picture your personal performance. Attention should be given to competency standards and the shaping of a personal character. Moreover, the course exhibits quality approach to quality time. This places it above it other course.


Bratton, J., Denham, D., & Deutschmann, L. B. (2009). Capitalism and classical sociological theory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press

Hirst, P. Q. (2010). Social Evolution and Sociological categories. Routledge publishers.