Capstone Project Sample on Homicide in the First and Second Degrees and the Death Penalty

Abstract

Over the earlier years, the U.S has perceived custody rates upsurge over the gone few year. As a result, to this, the law implementers have set up strategies that focus on averting more wrongdoings. This is through causing prison duration progressively cruel and to discourage any other cases. This entails the putting into practice lifetime punishment and death fines particularly for chief lawbreakers. This has witnessed 2.3 million people jailed in nation’s Correctional capacity and penitentiaries. These policies have led to the U.S standing as the topmost nation for incarceration charges. Penalizing bases and confinement habitually have an assortment of goal, which include fading, correction, hindrance and renewal. In far ahead years, passing judgment efforts have often been well-organized with the aim of promoting the block effect of illegal justice agenda. Despite the fact that the illegal justice basis generally offers a number of difficult effect, the core worry is indeed, whether such incidents of incarceration and passing judgment of death punishment have sown outcomes in relation to preventing wrongdoings. Studies have been done currently show the punishments set in law courts to surge the degree of correction have resulted to fewer value. Presuming that the demise fine rightly has any effect on law-breaking levels, then the effect is least. More dreadful, it may go off beam manner! There are instances where the death fine has been a clarification for offense contrasting to a precautionary. The consequences are that they fail to diminish or prevent incidents of killing in the community. The effects would be to search for other means that would aid individuals tackle the foundations of the issues that motivate them to take part in manslaughter wrongdoing connected undertakings like anger controlling, drug use, stress control and alternative psychological conditions.

Homicide in the First and Second Degrees and the Death Penalty

Introduction

Murder can be defined as the groundless executing and slaying of one person by another. A shared incident that is frequently meant for citation is that of the commonwealth v. Rodriguez ruled in 1986. Manslaughter is as well defined as the illegal killing of a person with ill will (Sentencing Advisory Council, 2011). For example, the Massachusetts rule insist on that killing be considered as any:

  • Kind of murder that has been done in an illegal way.
  • Kind of homicide that has been conducted via incident of ill will and unkindness.
  • Kind of slaying that is done in a thoughtful manner having been discussed and prearranged by the criminal.

Hypothesis

H1: The assumption that this paper tries to check whether the demise punishment set on those alleged to have been criminals prevent instances of severe levels of manslaughters.

H2: The second premise is whether the life punishments set to those suspected of a second-level homicide deter more cases of murder.

Null Hypothesis

            The null theory of this paper will be that;

NH1: First level homicides are not prevented by demise punishment opinions.

NH2: Life judgments set to second level sentences fail to prevent murders from taking place.

So as to openly have a comprehension on the numerous words used in this study, it is vital to offer a description of the words as shown in the literature review part beneath.

Literature Review

  • Definition of terms

The core words that will often be repeated in this paper incorporate; first level killing, second level homicide, demise punishment and killing. First degree killing is the illegal slaying of a person with deliberate arrangements or earlier thinking; killing unavoidable with convincing degrees of harshness; slaying yielded to the demand or strived demand of specific wrongdoings or killing undertaken in the demand or striven appreciation of misconduct worthy of highest punishment of incarceration for life. Second- level killing is define as the homicide situations that had the alleged requiring aspiring  thoughts that the target should perish, however no evidences can be obtained whether they really took part in the demise of the targets. Demise penalty is the ruling set to a target who has took part in killing, and includes dangling. Homicide in contrast refers to incidents where the individuals alleged did not have the objective to slay the casualty although the demises suffered came from unintentional grounds. A widely-known incident is the demise of King of Pop-Michael Jackson that has in the meantime seen his private medic, Conrad Muray, going through a number of law court circumstances to respond, all in accord to (Attorney, 2013).

Case Studies

The case of Dr. Kermit Gosnell

Dr. Kermit Gosnell is a health expert who was accountable for cutting the spines and ending the lives of infants via abortion or untimely deliveries. He was from the western region of of Philadelphia working in a resident health center that aided poor mothers. As an expert, Dr. Gosnell aged 72 years during the sentence brought about an incident of first-level slaying that depicted severe disapproval from anti-abortion campaigners.  His legitimate consultant, Jack McMahon, resisted on the basis that Dr. Gosnell instilled a pill in the uterus of the hopeful women to halt the heart of the unborn, therefore causing incidents of death of a baby.  Simultaneously, a similar incident took place for ten repeated days, the panel of judge learned that Dr. Gosnell was accountable for ending the lives of numbers children. The civil rights organizations that oppose abortion, argued that Dr. Gosnell worked outside the authorities and values of the casualties social protection privileges. These crowds asked about the requirement to look at the act of slaying a baby outside the womb as murder, as it takes place just prior to the real birth (Hurdle & Traddle, 2013).

Nevertheless, those who back abortion contended that it were the competitors who crusaded the medic’s hearing. What stillbirths’ opponents actually considered from the start of the case, they said, was a surging rate of restrictions on the government level to fruitfully obstruct the legal necessities of abortion in the nation. Others nevertheless felt that via the condemning, integrity has been worked for Kermit Gosnell, as he would recompense the price for the cruelties he did. Those against contented that disagreeing with women to have harmless abortion would only lead to incidents of extra illegally done abortions and killings akin to those endorsed by Kermit Gosnell. He was alleged accountable for around twenty four incidents of fetus elimination, hence, was offered his prison term.

The case of David Veins

David Viens was accused of second-degree homicide for manslaughter and supposedly cooking his spouse’s body. When at the law court, he said that he did not remember making the affirmations, including one that took place after he went through twelve hours of surgical procedure by force, which he alleged was unprepared. The defendant as well stated to the judge that his earlier attorney may have brought together more verification on his state of wellbeing and health circumstance and allowed him to confirm the charges. His sister narrated that he had made it open to every person that he is ready to go on in accord Hurdle & Traddle (2013). For that reason, Viens stated to the court of law that he, above all individuals, much-loved and cherished his spouse to the scope that he would not taunt to hurt her in any manner. He purported that it was the anxiety in him that pushed him to provide false evidence to police, as his entire life had been having difficulties in the current days. Although his spouse’s body has so far not been revealed, the forty nine year old coped with the punishment for firstly accepting the evidence that he roasted her body and later threw it away to hide the facts from the detectives. He then attempted making evasions upon the awareness of the wrongdoing he has done and the fright that the officers would be after him as the mainstay suspect after the vanishing of his partner. In the sentencing efficient, the Los Angeles Times [2007] and the prosecuting attorneys had branded him as a falsifier and an organizer, who frequently relied on health bases to run away from the authority as he had as well involved himself in a 2009 manslaughter incident.  After being punished on a prescription responsibility back in 2003, Viens was on evasion once more from Mexico to Vermont. He at last surrendered himself, two years after the offense was done. He had confessed to accidentally murder his spouse. Remembering his suspected wrongdoing prior to law court officers, Viens communicated to his authorized counsellor that he no anymore required his attorneys to shield, however would somewhat express himself at his hearing and punishment. During the course of the hearing, the persons who knew the Vienses stated that their nuptial had been in a wicked circumstance, with Dawn allowing one of friends to be acquainted with fact that her husband had coked her. It was convey that David was heard advising a close friend that he required, ″to slaughter that bitch″ as he linked her with pursuing $300 from the eatery (Hurdle & Traddle, 2013).

A murder case of exoneration

Exemption is an idea of the law that includes the statement of a single person as liable in any case, and charged for a wrongdoing yet later may bring about being cleared concluding the conviction a decision by a prosecutor, a delegate or a court, after new affirmation of his or her honesty was distinguished (Gross, 2012). To be sure, among the numerous cases accomplished in the United States of strike and crime, not very many of the cases wind up being absolved. For instance, a quarter of crime absolves were sentenced to termination, and very nearly half of all wrongdoing and assault excuses were sentenced to death or life confinement. Regardless, very few arraigned executioners are sentenced to death and the inconceivable overwhelming piece of ambush respondent surrender and get punishments of numerous years in jail. The significant question that may be provoked as of right now is the reason there is just a couple of ambush and manslaughter cases with comparative light sentences that may wind up being absolved.

The primary motive for this may be the  reason point that majority criminals, as Gross (2012) records, ″Never make any attempt to actually follow up their cases, either with the intentions to appeal or clear up their names″ (Gross, 2012). Many of them invariably need to overlook their situations, by parting what ahead of them and get set for their lives in penitentiary. They work their prison term and undertake what they can to lay their bygone behind them.  Surprisingly, the do not search for justice; they are naïve to seek aid. The Center on Wrongful Convictions, for example, addresses prisoners who make an inquiry for help that except if they have no less than ten years remaining on their prison terms, the Center will not aid them as it is overloaded with the incidents where the risks are greatly complex as monitored by (WBLA, 2013). An instance of pardon situation is that of Kirk Bloodsworth. He was detained two times for the murder of a young female in 1984, and condemned to hang. However, he is currently a free man because of DNA evidence, and is rejoicing on the 20th tribute of his release (MacDonald, 2010). He was arrested for the attack and manslaughter of a 9 year old young kind recognized as Hamilton Dawn, following an undisclosed eyewitness affirmed to having seen him at the area of wrongdoing.  Bloodsworth become the first person who served a period on demise punishment and was released due to the DNA analysis that was conducted. Crime detectives found her body as evidence in a lavish area of Rosedale.  The first condemnation put Bloodsworth to a demise penalty, however the Court of Appeals knocked down the sentence, opting that the prosecuting attorneys suspended crucial statement. A second later hearing, he got a life prison term (Cardozo, 2010). Bloodsworth constantly upheld that he did not undertake the offense and hence he was not guilty.  He praises investigations relating to the police analysis by the mass media that caused the running of undercover news that in advance revealed his situation. The difficult during his hiring back in the 1990s was that the DNA technology had not been established hence many individuals were penalized inoffensively. Nevertheless, in September 2003, a DNA analysis done on him and to other target and gave rise to a different individual, Kimberly Ruffner, to manslaughter incident of Dawn Hamilton. Kimberly is presently undertaking a life prison term (Gross, 2012).

Analysis

The chief motives of preventing wrongdoing are habitually arranged into two: both specific and general goals. Specific goals incorporate the endeavor to dishearten further instances of indiscipline to the individual who has been sentenced to penitentiary. The general goal goes for imparting legitimate order to the whole society, which is would have liked to gain from the individuals who have defied self-restraint before (An Opposing Viewpoints Series, 2004). The measures of discouragement to incorporate; the requirement for certification that other will be reluctant to carry out comparative criminal acts, decreasing the force of wrongdoings being carried out lastly to diminish the pace at which wrongdoing rates are expanding. Surety is depicted as the confirmation that a particular wrong activity will be rebuffed to achieve real train. The pace for this situation is depicted as the timeframe between the offense and the order being executed on the wrongdoing wrongdoer; and power implies the force of the control (Macdonald, 2010).

This then deduces that in order to be sufficient, it should be a certain result for executing wrongdoing. By and large, the thought that confinement demonstration as a deterrent has been built in the prospect that much of the time, the people who experience life detainment sentences are prone to sidestep further instances of re-confinement in future. This is on the grounds that the observation is that it is a high an expense to pay for wrongdoing. Despite what might be expected, more research has shown that confinement has a badly designed effect on convicts, in both the mental and social ways. For example, the hypothesis of social control shows that the wrecking of social bonds which happens to individuals while in prison, and the disgrace associated with the released prisoners, turns away ex-convicts from reintegrating once again to the general public and unreservedly blending with other individuals from there on. This decimation can achieve high recidivism rates, as wrongdoing ends up being their primary option for survival (An Opposing Viewpoints Series, 2004).

Social issue has constantly been used in order to discourage offenders from unlawful development. The general public is profoundly concerned on how it would function out and put set up measures that will guarantee it has attained the most at the present time minimizing instances of manslaughter (Sentencing Advisory Council, 2011). One of the ways it has strived to attain this is through acquainting what it sees with be the strongest order available to discourage murder, and that is the death penalty. In case executioners are sentenced to be executed, potential executioners will reexamine conferring a homicide for apprehension of losing their own particular life. For quite a while, criminologists explored crime rates to check whether they changed with the likelihood of prosecuted executioners being executed, however the impacts were unverifiable. By then in 1973 Isaac Ehrlich used an alternate kind of examination, which changed deductions showing that for every prisoner who was killed; seven lives were spared since others were debilitated from giving murder. Equivalent impacts have been changed by lovers of Ehrlich in make up for lost time studies. Also, paying little heed to the way that a couple of studies as to aversion are indeterminate, that is just because the death penalty is at times used and takes years after an execution is truly finished (Macdonald, 2010). The way that a couple of states or countries, which don’t use the death penalty, have more level manslaughter rates than domains that do, is not evidence of the deficiency of avoidance. States with high manslaughter rates may have much higher rates given they didn’t use the death penalty. Ernest van alcove Haag, a Professor of Jurisprudence at Fordham University who has thought about the location of avoidance presumed that, ″however measurable shows are undeniable; capital punishment is inclined to debilitate more unlawful acts from being conferred since people alarm being sentenced more than else different potential outcomes, ″ as indicated by (Akhavan, 2001, p.21). They fear for the most part passing deliberately executed by law and arranged by the courts. ″whatever people fear for the most part is inclined to redirect most. Hence, ″capital discipline may discourage potential executioners as a manifestation of prevention, ″ as indicated by the Sentencing Advisory Council (2011).

As well without doubts, capital sentence that could deter prisoners currently working on a life condemnation and tempted to killing a caretaker or remorseful parties bound to being arrested and opposing a prison term. It could be they will not be discouraged. In any circumstance they would surely not be deterred at all. We are indebted to all protection we can offer to law providers laid clearly to unusual risks (Death Penalty Information Center, 2009). Finally, capital penalty completely dissuades the murderer who is killed. A crucial analysis would show that this is a kind of collapsing; similar to the manner a thief placed in prison is prevented from raiding on the streets. Malicious murderers ought to be executed to stop them from murdering more; either many experts have earlier contended those individuals who do slaying and other law offenses of personal harshness either could probably come up with their own law offenses. To the stage when an offense is planned, the wrongdoer usually concentrates on leaving credits, arrest and sentence (Death Penalty Information Center, 2009).  The danger of even simplest discipline will not discourage the persons who expect to evade being known and arrest. It is a challenge to imagine how the danger of any punishment could offset an offense that is not planned. In general, capital law offenses are discussed in the high condition thriving asunder from everything else (MacDonald, 2010). In such situations, individual not cautious of the results to themselves and to others lead to cruelty. The occasion that, nevertheless, extreme correction can avert offense, then going through incarceration is rough enough to hold back any sensible person from undertaking a harsh offense (Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center, 2000). The incomprehensive control of the evidence indicates that capital penalty is no more worthwhile than the incarceration in deterring manslaughter and that it may be prompting to illegal cruelty (Akhavan, 2001). Capital sentence situations as a gathering do not have less charges of illegal homicide than non-demise punishment circumstances. On-calling police officers fail to hold to great illegal surprise attacks and wrongdoing in enemy situations than they can in capital penalty instances. Between l973 and l984, fatal surprise attacks intended for cops were not fundamentally to provide or take.  There is no support from the side that capital sentence provides a much fruitful check to police homicides than noncompulsory approvals (Death Penalty Information Center, 2009). Not for a single period that affirmation revealed by the cops are much protected in location that put up with demise punishment. Prisoners and penitentiary facility fail to hold up to a greater level of illegal surprise attack and wrongdoing from life-sentenced prisoners in termination situations than they do no capital penalty circumstances. In the middle of 1992 and 1995, 176 detainees were slaughtered by diverse prisoners. The bigger part 84 percent was slaughter incidents in connection with capital punishment. During the course of the same duration, about 2 percent of all surprise attacks on prison workers were deliberated by detainees in nullification location. Evidently, the danger of capital penalty does not even drive an increase check effect over the danger if a minor punishment in the adversary areas (Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center, 2000).

The people who acknowledge that disheartening legitimizes the execution of specific wrongdoers bear the heap of showing that the death penalty is an obstacle. The overwhelming conclusion from years of demoralizing studies is that the death penalty is, under the most ideal conditions, no to a more prominent degree a check than a sentence of life in prison. The Ehrlich studies have been by and large undermined (Todd, 2010). Actually, a couple of criminologists, for instance William Bowers of North-eastern University, keep up that the death penalty has the opposite effect: that is, social request is brutalized by the use of the death penalty, and this grows the likelihood of extra crime (Macdonald, 2010). For sure, for the most part supporters of the death penalty now put essentially no weight on demoralization as a bona fide legitimization for its moved ahead use. States in the United States that don’t use the death penalty generally have more level crime rates than expresses that do. The same is right when the U.s. is contrasted and different countries (U.s. Bureau of Justice, 2011). The U.s, with the death penalty, has a higher manslaughter rate than the countries of Europe or Canada, which don’t use the death penalty. The death penalty is not an obstacle in light of the way that for the most part people who admitted to the killings either don’t want to be got or don’t unequivocally weigh the differences between a possible execution and life in prison before they act. Routinely, crimes are presented in minutes of vitality or fierceness, also by criminals who are substance abusers and acted impulsively (Sentencing Advisory Council, 2011). Such connections were made by Thorsten Sellin for the years from the early 1920s to late 1950s. This procedure is far from the controlled test performed to test the Salk vaccination, since diverse things being proportional is never accurately precise when taking a gander at units as significant and moved as states. Still, if demoralization expect a tremendous part its effect should show up as simpler homicide rates in the death penalty states when diverged from equivalent, neighboring scratch-off states. The accompanying are the different conclusions that came about because of the examination as per Todd (2010):

  • The level of the manslaughter instance rates reported changes in distinctive totals of the states. It is negligible in the New England ranges and in the northern conditions of the Middle West and misleads some degree higher in many states.
  • Inside each social event of conditions having practically identical social and speculation conditions and masses, it is hard to perceive the revocation state from the others.
  • The examples of the homicide lapse rates of basically indistinguishable states with or without the death penalty are practically identical.

The certain conclusion is that executions have no detectable effect on wrongdoing lapse rates, which have not sufficiently advocated the lessening rate of capital crime cases. These studies should uncover the general, sturdy impediment effect of the death penalty gave that it exists (Donohue & Wolfers, 2006). Diverse experts looked for transient or remarkable sorts of avoidance. In 1935 an analyst, (Robert Dann) conveyed an analyzation of killings in Philadelphia during 60 times before and 60 days after five very publicized executions. He fought that the impediment effect of the executions should realize simpler homicide rates all through the post-execution periods (Lamperti, 1994). The conclusion was the converse; rates were higher than basic. In the ballpark of 20 years afterward, an alternate analyst, Leonard Savitz created a similar research, regardless of the fact that in his work the separating days were the ones the moment that capital disciplines have been proclaimed after pitched trials (Radelet, 2009). Savitz found no paramount differentiation in killings for the in the later past, then afterward periods. Tantamount examinations of momentary avoidance have been finished in Chicago and California, and again no obstruction effect was found. It is on occasion prescribed that capital punishment outfits added security to police or to prison ensures, and different states which have invalidated capital order for standard murder hold it for the killing of police or correctional facility staff (Donohue & Wolfers, 2006). This sort of counteractive action has regularly been built and no affirmation was found that unfortunate inadequacy of capital punishment makes police or prison work more perilous (Akhavan, 2001). One survey made a confirmation that police in passing discipline states acknowledge it helps their wellbeing. Interestingly, the same audit showed police in the invalidation states tolerating by basically the same edge that nonattendance of capital punishment did not add to the dangers of their jobs. In the last quarter century, inspectors have used more exceptional measurable schedules both to look at new data and to re-assess more developed in years disclosures in new ways (Radelet, 2009). With very few exceptional cases, the impacts are unfaltering with the earlier disclosures. Most scientists have presumed that prevention and capital punishment studies have yielded a sensibly unfaltering sample of non-avoidance. Despite the fact that they discover understanding that the wrongdoing rate is not responsive until the very end punishment, they do call for further research into particular sorts of illegal acts (Lamperti, 2004).

Conclusion

Presuming that the demise sentence actually has any effect on law-breaking levels the effect must be minor. There are cases where the death penalty has been a justification for law-breaking in contrast to being a precautionary. How could demise punishment be a clarification for manslaughter?  In healthcare paper, Dr. Louis West has shown what he refers to attempting suicide by killing. In this strange situations, a person actually killings law court death by accomplishment. An alternative conceivability is the brutalization concept which shows that capital correction can control homicide by seeming to allow killing of enemies (MacDonald, 2010). Mulls over from London and New York state have come up with an increase in offenses after extraordinarily inclined killings, in place of decrease solid with limitation.  How typically these inventions work is not clear. Study depict that capital killing has for a long time done very less in averting capital penalty. For example, in 1971, the Los Angeles Police Department conveyed that 50 percent of a group of defendants under arrest for theft stated that they had opted not to carry or use weapons in their undertaking to shun any risk of a killing, which could accelerate their own individual killing (Death Penalty Information Center, 2009). These declarations to cops can barely be taken at direct worth, but certain incidents are most probably practiced. It is therefore evident that the perception that capital penalty dissuades is yet the outcome of sentence, not sanction. The goal behind this is straightforward; over the last half century, the United States has not tried amply with the death punishment plan to permit sound assumptions. Certainly, compound econometric cannot shun this crucial reality. The data is substantially too hysterical, and the deductions from the research are too trivial (Akhavan, 2001).

On equalization, the verification deduces that capital penalty might shape the manslaughter rate in spite of the fact that it stays imaginable that capital fine might reduce it. Presuming that the demise punishment does not decline the killing rate, any lessening is probably uncertain. In relation to this affirmation, it is sensitive to utilize millions on a process with no depicted feature that causes in any case certain risks of killing innocents a time when other showed wrongdoing fighting procedures take place. Relating to whether life prison term prevent other wrongdoings from undertaking related blunders, it is worthwhile to note that the evidence from real studies deduce that the dangers of incarceration makes a little mass effect. Nevertheless, the survey similarly depict that increase in the amount of penalties, for instance, increasing the length of prison term, does not route a linking shape in the mass influence (Sentencing Advisory Council, 2011). A dependable discovery in deterrence study creates the assertion of worry and correction depict a worth mentioning increase in the block effect.  This occurrence is characterized by the desire for more study that splits the preventable and non-preventable populace.  It has been suggested that the significance of certainty of anxiety showing interruption effect may be taken lightly in researches that unite this populace. The evaluation shows that incarceration has, even from a hopeful perspective, no effect on the degree of  breaking laws and is often criminogenic, creating a more startling  degree of reoffending  by imprisoned remorseful gatherings defined by awkward parties who agree to another penalizing deduction.  Credible illustrations for this include; prison is a learning setting for offenders, prison reinforces criminal personality and might reduce or cut social connections that spur legal deed also incarceration is not an apt respond to the essentials of a number of remorseful gathering who need medicine for the primary justification of their actions (for example drug, liquor and mental health issues). Inhuman prison settings fail to bring up a better prevention effect, and the evidence exhibits that such situations may be criminogenic. Hindrance stands for the motives of violation of a punishment to be known by a law court close by rebuilding, correction, reprobation and party safety. The motives for correction and punishment are chiefly deductions in themselves, referring to the truly remorseful side and the illegal action, without desire of occupation by naming the possible misconduct declining results of correction and conviction.  As it may be, the diverse reasons for punishment, dissuasion, and recovery and locality insurance- do not only respond to unlawful deed, extra strategy to realize a decline in offense. Incarceration has its spot in the illegal justice structure. Extensive expressions of incarceration may be looked at to achieve the motives of correction and warning , to make sure the party by declining of an offender or to provide period for recuperative treatment. Bearing in mind the remarkable affirmation, be that as it may, it is simple that the drives of punishing be acknowledged openly- accepting to their own specific advantages- and that caution be accomplished when incarceration is backed as a way of averting all illegal deeds from happening.

Implications

Trial study presses on to suggest that imprisonment is not a productive block of wrongdoing, and that it has the inclination to manufacture overhauls of re-culpable. Discipline must make sure, rapid and amazing for it to go about as prevention. In any case, exploration and authority realities have shown that for the most part criminal value systems disregard to always train wrongdoers, and that the time in the middle of offense and sentence is unnecessarily long for a prevention effect to exist. Also, investigate has in like manner exhibited that even compelling sorts of confinement, for instance most amazing security prisons, don’t go about as a more noteworthy measure of hindrance than slightest security prisons or significantly lesser approves. Incarceration is enacted to meet one element of correction; hindrance. For confinement to come in as a obstacle there needs to be absolute remake of social order’s response to misconduct, with a essence of controlling prisoners’ predicaments to social direction to promise they have the ability to make a impeccable and successful re-admission to the community.

The consequences are that the introduction of death sentence does not lessen or avert incidents of manslaughter in the community.  The suggestions would be to hunt for other means that would aid individuals tackle the foundations of the issues that push them to take part in manslaughter offense correlated undertakings like drug use stress and anger management and other psychological conditions.

References

An Opposing Viewpoints Series. (2004). Does capital punishment deter crime? Retrieved             from http://www.dikseo.teimes.gr/spoudastirio/E- NOTES/D/Does_Capital_Punishment_Deter_Crime_Viewpoints.pdf

Akhavan, P. (2001). Beyond impunity: Can international criminal justice prevent future     atrocities? The American Journal of International Law, 95(7), Retrieved from             http://www.asil.org/ajil/recon2.pdf

Attorney. (2013). Legal articles: Homicides. Retrieved from            http://www.attorneys.com/homicide/what-are-the-different-types-of-homicide/

Cardozo, B. (2010). 200 exonerated. Retrieved from            http://www.innocenceproject.org/200/ip_200.pdf

Death Penalty Information Center. (2009). Smart on crime: Reconsidering the death penalty         in a time of economic crisis. Retrieved from         http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/CostsRptFinal.pdf

Donohue, J., & Wolfers, J. (2006). The death penalty: No evidence for deterrence. Economist       Voice, Retrieved from http://users.nber.org/~jwolfers/policy/DeathPenalty (BEPress).pdf

Gross, S. (2012). Exonerations in the United States, 1989 – 2012 report by the national     registry of exonerations. Retrieved from            https://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/Documents/exonerations_us_1989_2012            _full_report.pdf

Lamperti, J. (1994). Does capital punishment deter murder? Retrieved from             http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/teaching_aids/books_articles/JLpaper.pdf

MacDonald, E. (2010). Does imprisonment as a punishment deter crime? Retrieved from http://justspeak.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Does-imprisonment-deter-crime.pdf

Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center. (2000). Arguments for and      against the death penalty. Retrieved from          http://deathpenaltycurriculum.org/student/c/about/arguments/arguments.PDF

Radelet, M. (2009). Do executions lower homicide rates?: The views of leading     criminologists*. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99(2), Retrieved from             http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/files/DeterrenceStudy2009.pdf

Sentencing Advisory Council. (2011). Sentencing matters does imprisonment deter? a review       of the evidence. Retrieved from            http://www.sentencingcouncil.vic.gov.au/sites/sentencingcouncil.vic.gov.au/files/does_i            mprisonment_deter_a_review_of_the_evidence.pdf

Todd, R. (2010). Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime. Retrieved from             http://204.62.19.52/offenders/ocjrc/96/backfire.pdf

U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008 annual        rates for 2009 and 2010. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

WBLA. (2013). Kirk bloods worth marks 20th year since exoneration twice convicted for             murder in 1984, dank exonerates man. Retrieved from            http://www.wbaltv.com/news/maryland/i-team/kirk-bloodsworth-marks-20th-year-         since-exoneration/-/10640252/20761352/-/jiyhvc/-/index.html

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