Job Satisfaction and Organizational Justice
Validity refers to the extent to which recording measurements of the level of closeness of the phenomena that are being investigated by researchers using a measuring instrument occurs (Bless & Higson-Smith, 1995; Welman et al., 2005). There are different ways of assessing validity. These include content validity that tests all possibilities, criterion-related validity that test the effectiveness of a test in providing prediction and construct validity that determines the effectiveness of a test in performing its practices.
Niehoff and Moorman (1993) made a discovery that there is a positive correlation in the formal procedures of an organization both interactive and distributive justices. Both interactive and distributive justices on the other hand have a positive correlation with the five organizations’ citizenship behaviors. These include courtesy, altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue and sportsmanship (Niehoff and Moorman, 1993).
The same study revealed that there is positive correlation between interactive and procedural justice and supervision of the work of the employees. Another study revealed that there is a positive correlation between organization support and procedural justice, personal efforts, interpersonal assistance, and an organization’s loyal promotion (Moorman et al., 1998).
Confirmatory factors analysis has shown that procedural, interactive and distributive justices’ measures are empirically distinct (Aquino et al., 1999; Niehoff & Moorman, 1993). According to Aquino et al., (1999), there is a negative correlation between the distributive justice and the effects of the negative attitudes of the employees as well as the deviant behaviors toward them.
Reliability refers to the degree to which the results indicate consistency with time or the entire study population’s accurate representation (Joppe, 2000). The instrument of a researcher is considered reliable if under the same methodologies it can produce the study’s outcome.
The variability index that is associated with the variation that is accounted for using the true score of an underlying construct is called Cronbach’s Alpha (Cronbach, 1951). Alpha coefficient usually ranges from 0 to 1 and it is used in describing the selected variables from scales or questionnaires that are multi-formatted or dichotomous. Even without the lower limit to alpha coefficient, there is an increase in internal uniformity regarding the scale’s items as the coefficient of Cronbach’s alpha approaches value 1.
Scores whose alpha coefficient is close to 1 are regarded as excellent when it comes to determining the instrument’s reliability. If the alpha coefficient is more than 0.8, the reliability of the instrument is considered as good. Therefore, because the alpha coefficient of the current study is 0.845, then this indicates that its degree of reliability is high.
Discussion and Conclusion
Organizational justice and job satisfaction have an inverse relationship with the withdrawal behaviors of the employees that include job insecurity, absenteeism, lateness, turnover, theft and propensity to a turnover (Buitendach & De Witte, 2005; Dailey & Delaney, 1992; Greenberg, 1990b; Hanish & Hulin, 1991; Hendrix et al., 1999; Siers, 2007). However, organizational justice and job satisfaction increase when there is an increase in organizational effectiveness and employee productivity (Fernandes & Awamleh, 2005; Konovsky & Cropanzano, 1991; Robbins, 2005; Staw, 1995).
To organization’s employees and the management, understanding the kind of relationship that exists between organizational justice and job satisfaction is very important. Studies conducted in different service industries have shown that when employees have job satisfaction they are motivated to satisfy the needs of customers (Bowen et al., 1999). These studies have also shown that it is possible to achieve high organizational justice levels by improving the level of satisfaction of the employees in their job.
Therefore, organizations, more so the service industry organizations have higher chances of realizing crucial benefits by utilizing organizational justice like a strategy for increasing job satisfaction among the employees. As such, this study explores the kind of relationship that exists between job satisfaction levels that the employees experience and perceived organizational justice that is aimed at facilitating the manipulation of appropriate relationships that will enhance maximizing of the potential benefits.
Studies have shown that there is a significant relationship in statistics between the level of the organizational justice that is practiced in an organization and the level of satisfaction of the employees in their job. As such, it is apparent that organizational justice plays a crucial role in determining job satisfaction (McFarlin & Sweeny, 1992).
According to Fernandes and Awamleh (2005), research in this field has proved that organizational justice’s dimension has the potential of resulting in both behavioural and effective responses. Thus, this supports Herzberg’s two factor theory. This theory emphasizes that staffs are not motivated by the extrinsic awards that include the work environment and income unless there is a productivity level that employees feel that it is good enough.
However, intrinsic awards that include opportunities, growth and responsibility can motivate employees to work more and compensation is a lower expectation from their job. Regardless of the other crucial factors, lack of hygiene can cause dissatisfaction of an employee to their job.
These study findings seem to support the notion that satisfaction of employees with income that they get has a direct relationship with their perceptions of distributive justice (Folger & Konovsky, 1989; Martin & Bennett, 1996). Comparisons of the benefit’s standard of the employee and benefit satisfaction have a positive relationship (Williams, 1995).
Job satisfaction was more among the employees that felt that they had a better benefit coverage than the others. Martin and Bennet (1996) made an observation that there was an important casual relationship between benefit satisfaction and distributive justice. There was an appeal process that determined the increases in pay and this also influenced job motivation among the employee to a higher level (Folger & Knovsky, 1989). However, the influence of procedural justice on the employees’ pay satisfaction is weak (Martin & Bennet, 1996).
Mulvey (1992) observes that the employee benefit satisfaction can be influenced positively by an appeal that relates to consistency in pay policies application and the decision of the appeal that is related to the pay. There is also a relationship between the degree to which decisions are involved and the benefit satisfaction of the employees with benefit satisfaction being based more on an accurate benefit communication program (interpersonal justice) instead of participating in decisions as well as preference of the workers’ benefits (Tremblay’s et al., 2000). Nevertheless, Martin and Bennet (1996) observe that there is a weak relationship between employees’ benefit satisfaction and procedural justice on the benefits.
Research findings were analyzed by Veeran and Katz (2002). They discovered that there is a strong correlation between job satisfaction and interpersonal justice. They also noticed that the interpersonal justice that is associated with information is also related to the organizational characteristics that include the existence of proper channels of communication which have significant influence on the workers’ job satisfaction.
The academic context where the research was conducted in establishing the correlation between intrinsic employee job satisfaction and communication satisfaction should also be considered. This is important because it will enhance ecological validity which is a situation where theoretical perspectives are observed in natural settings to ensure that the actual behaviours are realistic. It is crucial to know that there are rare high academics regards when it comes to monetary compensation in addition to the fewer resources available.
According to organizational justice literature, the perceptions of interpersonal justice in the organizational settings will most probably turn to moral outrage which is revealed by detrimental activities that include sabotage behaviours (Folger & Cropanzana, 1998; Greenberg, 1990b). On the other hand positive outcomes that include employee satisfaction in their work and high productivity at work can be influenced by fair interpersonal treatment’s perception by the organization (Bateman & Organ, 1983, Greenberg, 1990b; Morrison, 1997).
According to the analysis of multiple regression of seven variables in demographic that the study considered, the variation in the satisfaction of the workers to their job is significant. These results support the results of Jones et al. (2000) as well as those realized by Williams and Hazer (1986). Independent analysis of the three main demographic variables which are salary level, age and education level shows that the variables are crucial determinants of the employee satisfaction.
According to Robbins (1998), the tenure or service years becomes a stable and important determinant of the employee’s job satisfaction when it comes to controlling age variable. As such, it is the important variance when determining job satisfaction. However, most findings of the recent studies indicate that the satisfaction of the employee and tenure have a positive correlation (Jinnet & Alexander, 1999; Jones et al., 2000; Staw, 1995; Vecchio, 1988).
On the contrary, there are findings from some studies that show that there was less satisfaction among the employees whose tenures were longer. Lambert et al., (2001) supports this view by emphasizing that there is an inverse relationship between the employee satisfaction and tenure. Existence of these inconsistencies is due to the fact that the variables used in the organizations have relationships and that they have varying views about tenure. Some organizations view senior employees as liabilities despite being given respect in regards to the terms of the tenure.
The present studies indicate that job satisfaction and job position are negatively correlated and this is inconsistent with Miles et al., (1996) views that the position of a worker in the hierarchy of an organization shows an important variation in their job satisfaction. There is more conflict with other researchers such as Oshagbemi (1997) and Robie et al. (1998) who suggest that employee’s satisfaction level can increase according to the level of their job.
The conviction of various researchers is that gender also plays a role in determining job satisfaction despite these findings by the present studies that depict gender as a lower determinant of employee’s job satisfaction. In the sample involved in the study, female workers constituted 30% and this may be the cause of the alteration.
Nevertheless, the studies done by Scandura and Lankau (1997) and Saal and Knight (1988) give a convincing justification to the results. These researchers suggest that there is a decline in gender influence on worker’s job satisfaction when the variation in job attributes, occupation level, income and age are controlled.
In addition, the current study shows that education is important in predicting job satisfaction. The results of the studies that investigate the association between education level and job satisfaction are mixed (Camp, 1994; Loscocco, 1990; Ting, 1997; Vorster, 1992). Some studies such as those done by Rogers (1991) and Ting (1997) conflict the views stated above because they emphasize the possibility of little influence on the job satisfaction level of an individual. The results that education is a predicator of less variation in satisfaction are due to the influence that academic qualifications have on job satisfaction which is indirect (Vorster, 1992).
Unlike with employee’s job satisfaction, the indications of inferential statistics is that the variation in the organizational justice is not explicitly explained using demographic variable that include educational level, gender, age, job level, tenure, marital status and salary. However, Scarpello and Jones (1996) views as well as Sweeney and McFarlin (1997) views are different because they emphasize the point that the kind of relationship between behaviour/attitude towards work and pay justice perceptions are moderated by biographic variables.
On considering the influential power that each variable has, the demographics stated above do not provide credible explanation to the organizational justice variance. This supports Konovsky and Cropanzano (1991) findings which show that there is no important influence of the biographical variables on organizational justice measures.
A study by Berkowitz et al. (1987) gave different findings to the ones of the current study that organizational justice is not influenced by gender and rather, it increases satisfaction among men due to the belief that men are getting a fair pay. The above findings are complicated by a study by Brockner and Adsit (1986) whose findings indicates that the relationship between pay, satisfaction and equity is moderated by gender differences.
There are various drawbacks that should be understood even with the contribution of the current study in terms of what is known about organizational justice and job satisfaction processes. First, it should be understood that the study uses probability method in sampling the objects where subjects were selected based on convenience. As such, this may have caused bias which reduces the degree of generalizing the results over the relevant population of the study hypothesis.
Secondly, although the size of the sample comprising of 120 employees seemed sufficiently large to represent the employees of Jumhouria Bank, there is the likelihood of the extraneous variables raising concern about the internal validity of the study. This means that there were possibilities of the influential and maybe unclear variables including socio-cultural sensitivity, organizational climate, organizational commitment and leadership style which were not controlled.
Thus, these may have impacted on the prevailing relationship between employees’ satisfaction with their job as well as the perceived organizational justice’s level. Regardless of the ecological validity in the present study being favourable, the future studies ought to focus on how they can improve ecological validity because the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction can be flexible in an organization with time or even vary in all organizations.
To avoid the problems mentioned above, the recommendation of the researcher is that the future studies ought to focus on improving internal validity in their studies by using study designs that enhances more control of possibly influential though unclear variables that include the aforementioned in order to eliminate or reduce their effect on variables being investigated.
This will enhance a significant improvement of internal validity to enhance and facilitate scientific study and results via accurate testing of a relationship that exist between the perceived organizational justice level and job satisfaction with higher certainty.
External validity of the future studies in the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction ought to be improved by selecting a larger size of the sample. To avoid introducing bias in the study, probability sampling should be employed. This method is possible when it comes to convenient sampling.
The recommended method is stratified sampling because it enhances drawing of samples based on equity in different levels of a heterogeneous population. This result to sample that gives a better representation (Sekran, 2003). Eventually, this will allow for the generalization of the whole population.
The future studies’ ecological validity ought to be enhanced by ensuring that the selected samples represent different higher learning institutions, industrial organizations and services in the country. It is recommended that future studies use selective generalization especially homogeneity which includes gender. They can also consider the nature of the organizational settings where the study is conducted. By following these kinds of approaches, researchers can increase the applicability of the findings of their studies because generalization will be possible (Welman et al., 2008).
The present study’s findings that show the satisfaction of employee with promotion and pay are significant in predicting organizational justice. To advance this study, the recommendation of the researcher is that in-depth research should be carried out by future studies. This will help in clarifying the kind of relationship that exists between organizational justice and employee’s job satisfaction. It will do this by exploring influence of a given work over employee’s job satisfaction while undertaking it.