Sample Urban Studies Essay Paper on What are The 8 Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight vivid targets that are clear-cut and measurable, with strict deadlines outlining how the lives of the world’s poorest people should be improved. These goals were agreed on by all countries signatory to the United Nations and several affluent development institutions. In essence, the idea was to galvanize all possible sources of help to address the plight of the poor in the world. At the forefront of accomplishing these goals is the United Nations Organization itself in conjunction with the governments of the affected countries. The Millennium Development Goals include getting rid of poverty and hunger, ensuring that people around the world attain primary education, encouraging gender equality and endowing women, minimizing cases of infant mortality, developing the health of mothers, fighting HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, championing for environmental sustainability, and lastly creating a global partnership for development (“Millennium Development Goals”).

Firstly, eradicating poverty and hunger involves reducing the proportion of persons surviving on less than one dollar per day by fifty percent. This goal also incorporates halving the percentage of people suffering from extreme hunger. Secondly, achieving universal primary education is based on ensuring that all young kids are accorded an equal opportunity of completing an entire course of primary education. Thirdly, promoting gender equality and empowering women aims at eliminating all cases of gender disparity in the education systems and elsewhere. Fourthly, reducing child mortality calls for the reduction of the proportion of children who die when they are under the age of five by two-thirds.

The fifth MDG advocates for reducing the maternal mortality rate by three-quarters through improved maternal healthcare. The sixth MDG focuses on stopping and even reversing the proliferation of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other endemic diseases. The seventh goal ensures environmental sustainability by focusing on reversing the loss of environmental resources. It also involves improving the welfare of slum dwellers and increasing access to safe drinking water. Lastly, the final MDG is concerned with availing decent employment opportunities for the youth and establishing open trade that will accommodate all nations among other objectives.

The Understanding of Globalization

Globalization is the deliberate integration of markets in the global arena with the aim of creating increased interactions among national economies. It consists of the exchange of ideas, world products, views, technology, and certain cultural features. Undoubtedly, today globalization cuts across all the major sectors of a country including the economic, political, and financial sectors. Additionally, it affects a country’s culture, political system, environment, and the people’s physical welfare. These effects can be both negative and positive. 

The Negative and Positive Aspects of Globalization.

To begin with, globalization leads to the economic domination of less developed countries by the major world economies because it allows them to undertake trade frauds such as dumping. Secondly, it creates a balance of trade deficit in less developed countries. The gap is attributable to globalization increasing their volume of imports while their exports remain constant. Thirdly, it creates competition for local industries. The competition may be detrimental in the long run since the foreign producers use developed technology hence granting their products an edge in the market.

The positive aspects of globalization include economic growth and development. World trade increases the allocative efficiency of resources in less developed countries allowing them to specialize in producing products they bear a comparative advantage over other nations. It also improves the financial resources of a country through foreign direct investments and immigration of capital and improved technology. Lastly, globalization creates new markets for local producers. At the same time, competition arising as a result of globalization ensures producers produce high-quality products and charge optimum prices that are not exploitative to consumers.     

Works Cited

Millennium Development Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2017, from http://www5.worldbank.org/mdgs/