Sample Technology Paper on Cloud computing

Cloud computing


The term “cloud computing” refers to a broad category of internet-based resources, including data storage, database, software, analytics, as well as other types of platforms. In the context of IT, a “remote service” refers to any service that can be delivered without physically being present at the hardware. Netflix, for example, makes advantage of cloud computing in providing its video streaming service. If you’re interested in cloud-based solutions, have a peek at Google’s offerings. To describe how on-demand services (such servers, databases, and software) are provided, the term “Cloud Computing” has been used. Apps can be created, developed, and managed on the cloud. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the many components and subcomponents that go into the final product. There is no doubt that the cloud is here to stay and will continue to grow in importance. Nowadays, it may be used for a wide range of things including flexibility, data archiving and management and many other things.

There are two ways to connect to cloud-based services like Google Docs and Skype, both of which use the internet. Because they require so much storage, most businesses are migrating to the cloud. Anywhere in the world may now access data stored in the cloud because to its improved bandwidth supplied by a cloud computing architecture. Apart from sharing resources among its users, Microsoft and Red Hat also work together on open-source initiatives.

What precisely is cloud computing, and how does it work, to get things started?

To store and retrieve data through the Internet, a cloud computing system is used. Servers, databases, software, and virtual storage are all examples of cloud computing services. Customers can use the Technology to browse their data through a cloud server, rather than paying for just a dedicated hosting. A cloud hosting is a business that provides all of the aforementioned products and services under one roof. As a result, portals can be used to store and retrieve data, as well as run applications, and they can be managed. Amazon and Microsoft Azure are the second most prominent cloud service providers at the moment. When it comes to cloud computing, users don’t need to save a lot of the software on their computers to access all of its capabilities and data.

Most people now use a wide variety of cloud computing services without even realizing it. Programs that use the cloud as its backend can range between Gmail to Google Drive to Turbo Tax to Facebook and Instagram, amongst other options Users’ data is kept on remote servers in the cloud and can be accessed at any time. Just like for individuals, businesses that need secure, online access to large volumes of data can benefit from these apps.



Cloud computing has a number of unique features.

Cloud computing that focuses on providing services rather than storing data Based on the definition of “support” provided by NIST, data centers offer a range of “help” models, including SaaS, P2P, and Infrastructure As A Service (SaaS). As a stack, progress, infrastructure, and SaaS are sometimes depicted as three separate stages. However, they don’t have to be coupled. Experts can install SaaS without relying on PaaS or IaaS infrastructure by using bare metal architecture. It is also possible to operate an application on an IaaS platform without encasing it in SaaS. (Rittinghouse et al.,2017).


Platform as a service (PaaS)

The cloud storage provider’s programming language, framework, interfaces, and tools can be used to deploy consumer or purchased programs to the cloud. There is no way for a customer to keep track of or manage resources in the cloud. Customers may be able to modify programs and the security settings of their ecosystem, but it is not a given.


App development on the cloud is made possible by cloud service providers. The service provider frequently develops, distributes, and implements standardized toolkits and payment methods. Additionally, PaaS service providers include an operating system, frameworks, and a web server. You shouldn’t have to worry about the underlying hardware when using cloud-based applications. A predetermined quantity of virtualized server and storage capacity for consumers is no longer required by cloud service providers.


Consider how often PaaS-based custom applications are used by data integration managers to disseminate their clients and users data. Two examples are “iPaaS” and “PaaS”. iPaaS allows for the creation, implementation, and management of customer integration procedures. iPaaS can be used to design and deploy integrations without the need for any hardware to be installed or maintained. Instead of delivering a product or service, the PaaS service focuses on data integration and management. The software that clients use is created and implemented by PaaS providers, not by the customers themselves. Using visual representations, PaaS users can access cloud-based data.

With the use of PaaS-based bespoke software designed by administrators, administrators may easily integrate and manage data. It’s not simply PaaS and iPaaS that may be used as examples. Customers can use iPaaS to design, deploy, and monitor integration flows. Without having to install or manage any hardware, clients can build and deploy links using iPaaS connection architecture. Managing communications and data is simplified using PaaS. When it comes to PaaS-based efforts, there seem to be no client-side considerations to be taken PaaS consumers benefit from data visualizations since they can easily access it.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

To abstract low-level components of the underlying communication network, IaaS uses cloud-based services to provide high-level APIs. These APIs include physical computational power, localisation, data conversion, scalability, as well as security and backup. The virtual computers are kept in a central location via a hypervisor. Cloud-based computer systems may be able to support a large number of virtual machine instances (VMS) and scale up and down in response to changes in client needs by leveraging network virtualization. Each Linux containers run in a distinct partition of a single Linux kernel, which is directly connected to the actual computer. Virtual Linux kernel modules, such as groupings and naming conventions, provide containers isolation, security, and management. Agile development triumphs over virtualization because of the absence of a hypervisor. IaaS cloud setups commonly comprise a virtualized disk image library, raw storage chunks, file or objects storage, controller, switches, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), software packages, and other resources.( Gonzales et al..,2015)


Mobile backend as a service (MBaaS)

Developers can access cloud storage and processing capabilities through software and apps included in their web app package and offshore development kits, known as “backends as a service.” Users may be managed, notifications can be sent through push, and social media integration is possible. In spite of the fact that BaaS is a relatively new cloud computing model, it is becoming more popular with corporate clients.

Function-as-a-Service (FaaS)

Servers in a shared computing system may be established and halted to satisfy the demand for serving requests. Using an esoteric calculation of the assets needed to complete a program, queries are charged per virtual environment per hour. Contrary to popular opinion, it is not necessary to run apps without servers. Cloud hosting eliminates the need to rent servers or virtualization software for front-end applications. In FaaS, serverless technology is utilized to build specialized cloud processes that respond to events. faaS is incorrectly referred to as “serverless” by some, while “serverless” by others (Marston et al.,2011).

Software as a service

Cloud-hosted applications are available to customers of the service provider. Client devices can access programs using a thin client-server approach, including a search feature or program interface. Configuration and upkeep of the cloud platform are out of reach for the consumer due to significant limitations. Customers can use any of the apps that are hosted in the cloud. Users of client devices can access applications through a search function or a program interface that is part of a thin client-server architecture. In order to keep the cloud platform running, clients must rely on a restricted set of user-specific configuration management choices.

Software that relies on third-party services It is through the internet that customers are connected with software and data base systems with in (SaaS) approach Application servers’ infrastructure and locations are overseen by cloud services. A monthly or yearly charge is not necessary while using SaaS since there are no lengthy commitments. Customers can use a web browser to access cloud-hosted software while cloud providers store and manage it. No matter what infrastructure or platform you use, it is not your obligation to maintain it up and functioning at all times. The support and maintenance of cloud applications are simplified because they do not require the user to install or operate them. They have a benefit over other applications because of their ability to distribute jobs over multiple virtual servers in real time. Workloads are distributed among a group of virtual computers using network elements With only a single point of entry, this method is easy to grasp. Many cloud services can be run on the same system to serve many different user groups.

Users can be withdrawn at any time from SaaS apps’ pricing, which is based on a monthly fee depending on the number of subscribers. It’s also feasible that it’s entirely free. According to proponents of SaaS, firms can save cash on IT operations by outsourcing their hardware / software repair and maintenance to a cloud provider. Equipment and software purchases can thus be redirected to other IT priorities. It is also possible to provide updates without requiring users to update new software by centrally hosting programs. Due to this, there is a disadvantage to storing client information on the server of an online firm.

As a consequence, the data may be obtained in an unauthorized manner. SaaS applications like Google Sheets and Word Online, as well as video games like Farmville, are good instances of this. Cloud computing and file storage systems such as Google Sheets, Google Drive, Word Online, and One Drive can be integrated by experts with software programs.

Benefits of cloud computing include.



Cloud computing can lower the costs associated with hardware, databases, server, and software licensing. IT resources and employees will be reduced over time as a result of this policy. A customer’s account can be expanded at any moment, including hardware, database, cloud services, software, and more. A typical historical configuration has always been difficult to plan and acquire the necessary hardware. If you’re given equipment that doesn’t meet your needs, you’ll likely have to deal with it for the rest of your life. This is not really a concern with the cloud since you don’t need to buy any additional hardware. For a price, you can use the host’s hardware and upgrade to a more powerful configuration when your current setup is no longer sufficient. As a result, you will save money, as you only pay for the time you really utilize.


Using a cloud-based architecture shields an organization’s IT staff from a significant amount of burden. As a result of the high costs associated with traditional on-premises systems (servers and data centers, as well as a development team), cloud-based solutions have become increasingly popular. Cloud architecture can save IT expenditures and free up IT staff to work on new initiatives instead of bug fixes and server maintenance difficulties.


For many businesses, going green is more crucial than ever before, and cloud computing may be able to help. In contrast to virtual servers, cloud computing eliminates the need for corporations to invest in power virtual servers. Using cloud computing services, you may avoid paper waste and instead rely on cloud machines rather than physical hardware. For one thing, you may be able to reduce the emissions of your employees’ daily journey thanks to cloud computing.

Is There a Downside to Cloud Computing?


Even while cloud computing has many advantages, as we’ve shown, working with a cloud provider who offers shoddy service or usability can be a significant drawback. As an example, interacting with a headless CMS system has various advantages. A greater degree of freedom and flexibility exists in the creation and distribution of material. However, without a front-end editor like you’d find in a normal CMS, marketers are left in the cold and then become unduly dependent on IT. Using a hybrid CMS like dotCMS, companies may reap the benefits of both open source and proprietary software. Using a headless CMS and its user-friendly interface, marketers are empowered.


Cloud computing sample architecture

Building cloud infrastructure requires the creation of loose parts like a transmission queue that can be used by various cloud components to connect with one other. As these and other operations require elasticity, so do the mixing methods. (Tsai et al., 2010)

Privacy and secrecy

It’s able to reach information held in a network over the mobile web at any time. There is a risk of data tampering, whether done so knowingly or unknowingly by the end user. In many cases, cloud service providers have been granted the authority to share information to third parties without the required authorisation for law enforcement or national defense. To use cloud-based service, users must agree to the terms of the service provider’s privacy policy. Policy, regulation, and user preferences all contribute to the availability of privacy options. Consumers have the option of encrypting data stored in the Cloud. ( Jadeja et al. 2012)

Identity & access management systems are better suited to deal with cloud computing privacy concerns. Systems like these distinguish between legitimate and unapproved users and specify the quantity of data to which each one of them has access in order to maintain the integrity of the system. Set up an account for each person you want to keep track of; keep an eye on how they’re acting.

Over two-thirds of cloud security breaches can be traced back to unreliable connectivity and APIs, data leaking, and device failure, and according to Cloud Security Coalition. Because of this, IT companies are concerned about these issues as a whole. It is possible to store data from several clients on same server in a shared cloud service system. Hacking the cloud’s security requires a significant amount of money and effort. Cloud technology can be accessed by criminals by leveraging a few well-known weaknesses. Big data repositories are vulnerable to single-attack fraud, despite the fact that hundreds and thousands of businesses may use enormous cloud servers. The effects of cloud computing on the workforce

Cloud technology has opened up new possibilities for businesses. Businesses are increasingly using cloud-based services. Cloud adoption was stymied by the IT workforce’s lack of knowledge and threat of losing their jobs.

Cloud technology can be used to host multiple applications and functions in a remote workforce. Working from home or any other location where there is an internet connection is no longer a problem. As a result, productivity rises and the working atmosphere is improved for everyone. Employees can then be given the appropriate duties and activities in their jobs as a result.

Components of the Cloud Computing Architecture




Applications or a platform can be used on the back-end by clients. In other words, it caters to the client’s requirements by providing service on the backend. A client can have access to any software or platform via the application.



When a client has special needs, a cloud service takes care of all of the different services that client might need. Computing in the cloud can be divided into three broad categories: software as a service, cloud computing as a service, and computing in the cloud as a platform. For cloud application services, SaaS serves as the underlying technology platform. Slack, Hubspot, and Google apps don’t need to be installed on a user’s computer in order for them to function. -Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): PaaS appears to be the same as SaaS. PaaS services, on the other hand, provide users with a platform for developing, changing, and deploying applications. As an illustration, have a look at Magneto commerce cloud and the Microsoft Azure platform. A service model for delivering IT infrastructure. It’s a cloud computing service that makes it possible to access data, run programs, and use middleware from anywhere. It eliminates the need for actual computer resources, such as RAM, processors, and data centers, by providing virtual services such as virtual machines. It is possible to rent space in the cloud for virtual servers, networks, and memory through IaaS, which is used by businesses. Examples are Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, Google Compute Engine (GCE), and Amazon.

The software that runs on the cloud.

‘Running in the cloud’ is the term used to describe the backend of a virtual machine’s operation and runtime system. Virtual machines rely on the Runtime Cloud to help them develop and run their software.


The provisioning of a virtual machine with an execution and runtime platform/environment is referred to as “runtime cloud” in the backend. It is the Runtime Cloud that provides virtual machines with the assistance they need to develop and run their apps




‘Cloud infrastructure’ refers to the various hardware and software components that make up a cloud computing environment. Services such as web hosting, application hosting, and even network hosting can all be found in one place on the Internet today. When we talk about cloud infrastructure, we’re referring to the hardware and software that are necessary to support the cloud computing model. There are a number of different types of hardware and software that go into a data center.




Administrative responsibilities in the backend include the management of backend components, such as software applications, services, cloud computing infrastructure, memory, and other security processes.




At order to protect cloud services, systems, information, and infrastructure, back-end security refers to adopting a variety of security approaches in the back-end. When it comes to cloud computing, security is integrated as a back-end function. There is a security system in place at the back end of the website.

Using an Internet connection, the front and back-end can communicate and interact with one other. The Internet enables front-end and back-end programmers to communicate and interact with each other.

There is a systematic review of approaches, tools, challenges, and best practices in the field of continuous integration and delivery

It is the software development industry’s practice of implementing continuous techniques, such as continuous delivery, delivery, and deployment, to ensure that new features and products are released regularly and consistently. Continuous practices are gaining popularity, and it is critical that the methods, tools, problems, and practices that have been reported for their adoption and implementation be reviewed and synthesized in a systematic manner. Software development research and practice are increasingly focusing on continuous practices.Many challenges and gaps still need to be addressed, including the need to better capture and report contextual data in the studies reporting various aspects of continuous practices; a greater understanding of how application systems should (re-)architect to support continuous practices; and attempting to address the lack of knowledge and to better understand how application systems should (re-)architect to support continuous practices.( Shahin et al..,2017)




To sum it up, cloud technology is a young technological development that has already had a big impact on the entire world. It offers a wide range of benefits to its consumers and companies. Organizations can save money on management and software upgrades, for example, while concentrating more on its core competencies as a result of implementing this technology. However, cloud computing faces additional challenges. Security and privacy are becoming increasingly important to people. Cloud computing data is not governed by international conventions or rules. Although the United States is one of the most technologically proficient countries in the world, data protection policies are not in place. Users are likewise worried about who has entry to and manages their personal information. – If global standards and laws are in place, however, cloud computing will have a profound impact on the future.



Rittinghouse, J. W., & Ransome, J. F. (2017). Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. CRC press.

Tsai, W. T., Sun, X., & Balasooriya, J. (2010, April). Service-oriented cloud computing architecture. In 2010 seventh international conference on information technology: new generations (pp. 684-689). IEEE.

Jadeja, Y., & Modi, K. (2012, March). Cloud computing concepts, architecture, and challenges. In 2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies (ICCEET) (pp. 877-880). IEEE.

Marston, S., Li, Z., Bandyopadhyay, S., Zhang, J., & Ghalsasi, A. (2011). Cloud computing—The business perspective. Decision support systems, 51(1), 176-189.

Shahin, M., Babar, M. A., & Zhu, L. (2017). Continuous integration, delivery and deployment: a systematic review on approaches, tools, challenges and practices. IEEE Access5, 3909-3943.

Gonzales, D., Kaplan, J. M., Saltzman, E., Winkelman, Z., & Woods, D. (2015). Cloud-trust—A security assessment model for infrastructure as a service (IaaS) clouds. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing5(3), 523-536.