1. Explain four models of urban growth
An urban growth model is a particular type of numeric model that involves economics, geographical
aspects, sociology, and statistics to explore the mechanisms of urban evolution and feedback of the
urban systems. (Li, X., & Gong, P. (2016). Urban growth models: progress and perspective. Science
Bulletin, 61(21), 1637–1650. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-016-1111-1)
Integrated land use or transportation model. Urban land use determines the location of activities
such as manufacturing, retailing, or residence. It generates flows that assist in town planning
supported by transport systems. Urban growth and development are determined by the transport
networks. The transport systems enhance essential mobility options for people and goods to move
from one place to another. It also influences patterns of growth in urban areas and the level of
economic activities carried out by providing good access to the land. Activities in urban centers have
different locations for example industrial and residential houses are located in different places
within a given town. Their separation will therefore become a generator of movements of people
and goods supported by transport networks.
Cellular automata model. This is a computational method, capable of simulating urban growth
processes by describing complex systems through a set of simple rules. It was designed for urban
growth to simulate the process of urbanization. This model consists of a set of rules that describe
the spatial interaction of cells and a set of parameters that lead to exploring different urban forms.
In this model, space has been defined as the grid and each part in the grid is called a cell. The grid
might be used to represent different estates in an urban center. Its ability the simulation of urban
growth, changes in land use, and population expansion had become suitable for simulating complex
geographical processes. This process has been greatly used in the planning of cities in the world.
Agent-based model. This refers to powerful simulation techniques that allow one to build an
artificial world and populate this world with individual agents called actors. Each actor has unique
behaviors and rules which govern their interactions with each other and the environment. The main
aim here is on interactions of individual entities with their behaviors stated and impacts that emerge
through such interactions for example the traffic jams that may be caused by individual cars in urban
areas. It is through interactions of agents that the city or urban area planners make decisions and
decide what actions are to be carried out based on the stated goals.
An ecological model of urban growth. It describes and explains the spatial patterns taken by the
distribution of people, buildings, and activities across a city or town. This orderly set of estates and
buildings in an urban center is called the city's land use pattern. This type of model has greatly
enhanced the proper arrangement of the city's structures and the transport network.
2. Evaluate the strategies that the government can adopt to enhance urban development
The government can enhance urban development through industrialization. Industrialization brings
about new production techniques and encourages agribusiness. Manufacturing creates more job
opportunities for people to be employed in the new sectors. Industrialization will help to draw
people from rural areas to cities and towns in search of new job opportunities. It makes its
population grow rapidly. When industries are constructed in a given area, the infrastructure of that
area is developed to ease transportation of both raw materials and finished products into and out of
the industry, facilitate the construction of good rentals for workers, health facilities, and schools for
their children. Industries may also supply clean water to the communities living around the industry.
Construction of quality and affordable housing. This will help to reduce the number of people living
in slums because they will be able to rent quality houses constructed by the government at lower
prices. People will invest more in other activities such as businesses hence generating more income.
Slum areas will also be eliminated or reduced.
Adoption of modern farm machinery to reduce employment in rural areas. This will force workers to
move in search of new jobs in processing and manufacturing industries in urban centers hence
increasing rural-urban migration. The increased number of people in urban areas, therefore, means
that the government has to invest heavily in healthcare facilities, schools to accommodate the rising
number of children, and also the transport network to ease the movement of people.
Advancement in transport and communication networks. Good transport networks facilitate the
easier movement of goods and services from one place to another within the urban center. Business
people will be able to transport their goods to consumers' premises at relatively lower prices hence
maximizing their profits. Consumers will also be able to acquire goods and services at relatively
lower prices due to a good transport network enabling them to invest in other projects such as the
construction of their own houses. This will in turn enhance urban development.
The government can also facilitate proper sanitation, drainage, and solid waste disposal. Investors
are more attracted to areas with good drainage and proper waste disposal. Proper sanitation
reduces urban centers' pollution levels and also helps curb disease outbreaks. Reduction in
environmental pollution is an urban development by itself.
Promoting urban agriculture. This can be achieved by preserving agricultural land in urban centers.
The food supply chain will be shortened. Carbon (IV) oxide emitted when transporting food from
rural areas to urban centers is also reduced. Urban agriculture improves the urban environment and
also provides the urban poor with enough food.
3. Analyse the manifestation of urban poverty, and its causes and suggest measures that can
address this phenomenon.
Urban poverty can be manifested in the following ways;
Unemployment rates in urban areas. This is where the number of people competing for the same
jobs is more than the jobs that are available at that time. Unemployment will then become a
problem for many people in urban settings hence leading to increased poverty levels. Most people
will not be able to provide for the very basic needs of their families. ,
Limited access to education and other basic services. If most people are not able to afford the very
basic needs such as education, a balanced diet, and good housing shows that they live in extreme
poverty. Individuals in urban areas should be able to access a better system of education and
Lack of safe and readily available water supply. Lack of enough supply of clean water poses a major
threat to several sectors, including the health of the people and their food security. People will then
have to use more money for them to purchase clean water from supermarkets hence reducing their
savings and leading to poverty. A higher proportion of the budget is used to acquire clean water.
There will also be a reduction of businesses requiring water inputs thus reducing job opportunities.
Increase in crime rates (insecurity). Poverty and unemployment force youths into anti-social
activities such as theft and robbery. They have to engage themselves in such activities for them to
support the city or urban life.
Poor quality housing. Slums are the physical manifestation of urban poverty. A good number of
people living in slums live in extreme poverty. This means that most of them are not able to rent or
own quality houses in developed estates. Also, the land owners in slum areas are not in a position to
construct quality rentals due to poverty or are a risk of forceful eviction if they lack title deeds.
Poor access to proper sanitation, drainage, and solid waste collection. Poor sanitation and drainage
are linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera typhoid and dysentery. It also affects the
supply of clean water to people living in those areas. The cost of living will be high because people
will use more money to access health facilities due to the increased number of diseases and also to
get clean water leading to a reduction in savings and investments.
Causes of urban poverty
Rise of rural-urban migration. People from rural areas tend to move from rural areas to big cities to
secure better employment and earn a higher income. This, however, depends on their level of
education and skills. Urban areas do not usually have a lot of job opportunities for those that lack
certain skills or with a low level of education. This, therefore, means that most of them will end up
engaging in crimes such as robbery and theft due to a lack of job opportunities and idleness. Even if
they are employed as manual laborers, there is a likelihood that the salary that they are paid at the
end of the month might not be enough to support city living leading to poverty.
Living on a low income is also another cause of urban poverty. This reduces the chances of children
from families living in this bracket from accessing quality education and skills training, this,
therefore, means that most of them will not be able to secure a source of income through better job
opportunities and businesses that can only be attained through better education and training.
Shortages of affordable housing. The lack of quality affordable housing in urban areas is one of the
contributing factors to the increase in urban poverty. This can lead to a state whereby many people
will lose their homes or have to get into debt because they are not able to afford those hiked rents
with an average salary.
Low Agricultural Production. The lack of subsidized fertilizers and seeds has led to the high cost of
farm inputs. Farmers will not be able to purchase the required number of fertilizers leading to low
production or if they are in a position to acquire enough fertilizers, their cost of production will be
high. Also, a lack of knowledge in using modern technologies in agriculture has resulted in the
inability of farmers to maximize their production. High cost of production will therefore raise the
prices of food in urban areas leading to a high cost of living which in turn reduce savings and
Large family size. Family heads have to maintain a large family. The consumption cost of large
families is very high leading to low investments.
Measures that can address urban poverty are as follows;
i) The government should give subsidized fertilizers to farmers. This will help to reduce the
cost of production hence reducing food prices.
ii) Development of Small-Scale industries. Agriculture on its own cannot generate
employment. Small-scale industries have the potential to generate sufficient job
opportunities for people in urban areas.
iii) The adoption of labor-intensive technology and cottage industries was revived to reduce
iv) Proper Implementation of Developmental Programmes such as the construction of
affordable housing, supply of clean water, and also proper sanitation.
v) Provision of proper security to reduce chances of theft and robbery.
vi) Provision of good transport networks to reduce the cost of transportation. This will help
to reduce food prices.
vii) Empowering the urban poor.
Crooks, A., Heppenstall, A., Malleson, N., & Manley, E. (2021). Agent-Based Modeling and the City: A
Gallery of Applications. Urban Informatics, 885–910. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8983-6_46
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