Approaches to Peace
Question 1: The important ideas in the Ury assignment (Chapter 2) that is surprising and/or one tends to disagree with/to doubt (100-200 words)
Peace by strength is Ury’s explanation of induced peace through armament. Whenever your dummy enemy starts to equip its military capacity and finance, tension is brought into the spectrum as the other will also seek to ‘prepare’. This would lead to scramble for power and egoist practices that are a threat to peace.
Peace through peace is in sync with most popular beliefs (Wood,25). In case a person/country errs, tempers flare, but showing empathy to that enemy would restore peace as it would depict the respect one has for the other and the lengths he/she is ready to go to maintain it.
Question 2: Two or more claims/ideas in the Invitation to Peace Studies Chapter 2 likely to be discussed further (25-100 words)
Personal peace can actually perpetuate greater world peace. Dalai Lama claimed that it is when the world knew of inner peace would it become a better place. It is right as one cannot give something that he/she does not have. Being at peace with our inner self would help us replicate the same to the world around us. This inner peace will be achieved only if we become honest and just to ourselves (Wood,29).
Peace is achievable by strength (Wood,24). It is believed that armament of the nations actually compounds negative peace. The military muscles serve to bully the weaker nation/group into accepting the winner’s terms, but according to the principles of peace, both nations/groups should consider the impact of their actions on the other group and be able to rectify where necessary and accommodate them; this principle should be two-way and reciprocating.
Question 3: Compose a thoughtful, evidence-based answer to “Summarize the major differences between negative and positive peace” provided at the end of the end of assigned Invitation to Peace Chapter 2 (150-300 words)
Negative peace refers to the absence of direct violence. Direct violence refers to actions that hurt a person/group physically (Wood,16). Direct violence happens in wars, for example, the World War I & II where a lot people were murdered and property destroyed. The absence of violence can be instigated by the signing of treaties, defeat during the war and even declaration of truces. Negative peace is precariously stable as it is founded on conditions. A breach of these terms would set out another war with far much more destruction.
Positive peace refers to the complete change of mindset, actions and dealings between the various members of the society. It hails justice as its core principle as just dealings/treatment by either the government on the people (or vice versa) or between the people themselves would enact a peaceful environment. It can be compared to the change in philosophy of living with one another and is a preventive stance. With the maintenance of a peaceful environment, wars and other forms of violence will be unheard of.
Question 4: Compose a thoughtful response to “Are the recent long periods of negative peace likely to continue into the decades ahead?” (150-300 words)
Yes, the long periods of negative peace are likely to continue into the decades ahead. Dialogue has been the proposed solving technique for most quarrels/feuds (McElwee,19). Both at personal and state level, independent institutions have been created to help solve these feuds through arbitration. For personal and meso-level conflicts, courts are tasked with this duty, but for countries, international bodies and organizations like the United Nations (UN) solve these feuds. The independent-nature and respect accorded to such bodies give them the higher authority when arbitrating (White,35). Also, treaties have been signed by all nations to maintain world peace and no country can attempt to go against these treaties as there are severe consequences accorded to such rebels. With the advancement in technology and knowledge, every person/country know their rights and their boundaries. They are bound by these laws in their constitutions which maintain negative peace all over (Barash,23). The constitution and international treaties are the first defense mechanism when a feud occurs and will maintain this peace in the decades to come.
Barash, David P. Approaches to peace : a reader in peace studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Print.
McElwee, Timothy. Peace, justice, and security studies : a curriculum guide. Boulder, Colo.: L. Rienner Publishers, 2009. Print.
White, Nigel D. Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. Manchester,England: Manchester University Press, 1990. Print.
Wood, Houston. Invitation to Peace Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Print.