This research utilizes a comparative methodology, case study methodology and quantitative
description methodology of monthly time series data from 2001 to 2016 in order to determine the
causal relationship between international tourism and terrorism in Europe.
Population, Sampling technique and Sample
For the purpose of this study, a total of 330 major tourist stakeholders including travel, tours,
hotels, and other players in five European countries that are listed in the most preferred tourist
destination of the World Tourism Organization depending on the number of foreign visitors
including France, Spain, Italy, Belgium and United Kingdom will be selected (Eurostat, 2018)..
This study assumes a survey research design that involves investigating populations using
selected samples to draw information and analyze occurrences.
Data collection tools
The main model of collecting data is through questionnaires for players in the tourism
sector. The questionnaire will include standard questions for the stakeholders in the industry
including semi-structured open and close-ended questions.
To ensure collection of quality data and evaluate the collection methods, a pilot study
introducing the instruments was done in a few travel and hotel service providers.
Motivation to Travel
1. What are the main reasons for touring this tourist destination?
2. How many times have you visited this destination?
3. Whom did you travel with?
4. How often do you travel internationally?
Awareness about Terrorism
1. How often do you hear about terrorism attacks?
2. What is the most trusted source of information about terrorism?
3. Has news about terrorism ever made you cancel your travel plans? If Yes, how many
4. Do you know of any terrorism event on this tourist destination over the last years? which
incidence do you remember?
Impacts on Stakeholders
1. Compare and contrast the tourism industry before and after the particular terrorist attack?
2. What are the outcomes of terrorism on tourist indictors including financial revenue,
number of tourists, and job opportunities in the tourism industry?
3. Is it possible to avoid the negative impacts of terrorism on tourism? If so, how?
Eurostat. (2018). Database – Eurostat. European
RAND. (2018). The cost of terrorism in Europe. RAND Corporation Provides Objective
Research Services and Public Policy Analysis |
Seabra, C., Reis, P., & Abrantes, J. L. (2020). The influence of terrorism in tourism arrivals: A
longitudinal approach in a Mediterranean country. Annals of Tourism Research, 80,