Sample Research Paper on Economic and Social Prosperity of African Americans

Economic and Social Prosperity of African Americans

            The income range of Americans has improved over the years. Most African Americans have entered the ranks of the middle class. The push for African American parents to seek socioeconomic mobility has been backed by the discrimination that they face during their children school involvement. Race and social class has always been the subject for discrimination. Class-related stigma has pushed for the social and economic improvement for the people of America. However, educational attainment, academic achievement, and economic independence are what have helped in the accomplishment of the social mobility. This paper analyzes economic and social prosperity of African Americans

            The 2014 Education Report and Enrolment Status between African Americans and the Whites of ages 3 years old and over reported that the white people still dominate in the highest number of the school enrolment. In the census carried out in 2014, it was reported that the enrolment status for the African American of the ages between 3 and 24 years was 46 million while in the same category the number of the whites in the school enrolment was 58 million (Hardaway & McLoyd, 2009). This is an enormous improvement according to the previous census, which had 33 million and 52 million for the African American and White respectively.

The sharp increase in the school enrolment for the African America has been attributed to the parental involvement in the school. Studies have found that parental involvement in the school is related to children’s school success and even college attendance (Gutman and McLoyd 2000; Sandefur et al. 2006). However, psychological studies of parenting strategies related to upward mobility and successful youth outcomes do not to focus on how class-linked parenting practices are tied to the academic achievement.

In addition to parental involvement in the school, parents managing their children’s activities outside of the school and home are also related to a child outcomes and potential for upward mobility. Parents of upwardly mobile children tend to provide their children with opportunities that are typical for the middle-class children, which include involvement in the sports, music, art, clubs, and various organizations. The involvement in these types of activities is related to school success as well as the development of the cultural and social capital, both of which have value within and outside of the academic institutions (Kwate & Goodman, 2015).

The state of education for African America is faced with many challenges. The government has made a dozen promises, which remain unfulfilled. The government had promised to raise the quality of education for all African American students, but this has not been achieved. For instance, many African American students across the nation do not get the quality education they deserve compared to the white students. They receive fewer of the school resources that may contribute to their academic achievement.

Another challenge facing the attainment and achievement of African American student is unequal opportunities. The matter of the sponsorship has always been a debate about equal allocation of sponsorship money to every student. Many African American students miss sponsorships every year and this deprives them of a chance to pursue higher education. The percentage of the white students joining college is higher compared to that of the African American students.

The economic and social prosperity of African Americans has been achieved through education and employment. Higher wages led to the increased family incomes, and strikingly, the average  Blacks families worked more than twelve weeks yearly to earn similar wage as White families (Wheary 2006). In 2002, White households had a net worth of $88,000, in fourteen times the median net worth of Black families. Moreover, between 1996 -2002, the white’s worth increased seventeen percent, whereas, Blacks net worth fall by sixteen percent (Study: Wealth Gap 2004).

The economic and social prosperity of African Americans has either been determined through the traditional measures of occupation, education, income and separately or combined to assess to socioeconomic status or as determinant in social cadre. Alternatively, the level of education may be a more appropriate indicator of social status for Black communities compared to others because they often do not receive salaries or employment opportunities commensurate with their educational qualification attributed to jobs and wage discrimination.

Income and education are determinants of perceived social standing, but these kinds of traditional measures factor less strongly for Black men and women than for White counterparts in the United States and in the United Kingdom, perhaps an indication of experiences of discrimination overshadowing economic factors in rating social status (Adler et al., 2008). In other words, because subjective social status is an overall assessment of past, current, and future socioeconomic chances and prospects, African Americans may incorporate experiences of racism into this assessment of rank in the social hierarchy (Subramanyam et al., 2012). The associations we observed speak to this possibility. The inverse correlations between lifetime racism and subjective social status in the present study were stronger, but correlations with day-to-day racism were similarly weak. Hence, it is important that equality is exercised in education and employment sector to ensure the improvement of the socioeconomic status of America. 

Reference

Adler, N. E., Singh-Manoux, A., Schwartz, J., Stewart, J., Matthews, K.,& Marmot, M. G.           (2008). “Social status and health: A comparison of British civil servants in Whitehall-II      with European- and African-Americans in CARDIA.” Social Science & Medicine, vol.          66, pp. 1034 –1045.

Hardaway, C., &McLoyd, V. (2009). “Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood.” Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 38(2), 242.doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9354-z

Kwate N, Goodman M. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry [serial online]. September 2015; 85(5):397-408. Available from: PsycARTICLES, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 14, 2015

McLoyd, V. C. Gutman, L. M., (2000). “Parents’ management of their children’s education          within the home, the community and at school.” The Urban Review, 32(1), 1–24.

Study: Wealth gap widened for Blacks, Latinos: White families continue to have higher net          worth. (2004). The Associated Press. Retrieved October 18, 2004, from http://www.msnbc.com.

Subramanyam, M. A., Diez-Roux, A. V., Hickson, D. A., Sarpong, D. F., Sims, M., Taylor, H.     A., Jr.., Wyatt, S. B. (2012). Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic       risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart        Study. Social Science & Medicine, 74, 1146 –1154.

Wheary, J. (2006). The future middle class: African Americans, Latinos, and economic      opportunity. New York: Demos: A Network for Ideas and Action.