Sample Public Administration Paper on Contributing Factors and Barriers To Public Administration Diversity: A New Yolk State Education Case Study

Contributing Factors and Barriers To Public Administration Diversity: A New Yolk State Education Case Study


Chapter One

Background of the Study.

Cities are generally known to inhabit diverse groups from different walks of life, making it critical to formulate and implement rules and regulations that promotes inclusivity. New York City became the primary capital city of America in the wake of the late 1780s, after confirming the USA constitution. Following two years, the Dutch set up the state on Manhattan Island while the English accepted accountability for the space in 1864, renaming it New York. Someplace in the scope of 1892 and 1954, numerous outsiders displayed in New York Harbor and went via  Ellis Island on their excursion to becoming American occupants (King et al., 2015). It is assessed that about 40 percent of Americans follow no one model to that area’s port. New York City is the most phenomenal city in the state.

Many areas also milestones in N.Y. The city is a tremendous achievement, counting three of the world’s ten most visited places for getting away in 2013. 66.6 million travellers visited New York in 2019. Many city places are of interest, tall structures and stops are known all through the planet, like the city’s fast speed, generating the term New York minute ( King et al., 2015). The Empire State Building has transformed into the overall reference standard to portray the height and length of various plans. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive on earth. Giving tireless all day, everyday help and adding to the designation

The city has 120 schools and universities north, counting  New York University, Columbia University,  Rockefeller University, and the City University of New York structure, the most noticeable metropolitan state-supported educational system in the United States (Grissom et al., 2015). The New York State Education Department is the New York express government’s branch liable for controlling all organization-sponsored schools in New York and all state-oversaw testing, as the creation and relationship of state tests and Regents Examinations. It was set up in 1904. Furthermore, the State Education Department coordinates high-level training, social foundations like presentation corridors and libraries, proficient recuperation, and approving different reasons for living. Its rules are consolidated in title 8 of the N.Y. rules and regulations. The virtual workspaces of the work environment are located n the New York State Department of Education Building.

Statement of the Problem

An organization faces barriers to diversity due to several factors, including cultural setup and structural orientation. The growing body of diversity-related organizational theory and incorporating diversity in management education programs suggest that achieving diversity is a top concern for organizations and companies throughout sectors (Perry & Christensen, 2015). Diversity is frequently seen as an efficient means of dealing with and adapting to changing external situations. Indeed, the corporate and public sector has embraced diversity education; a genuine industry has come up in the last decade or two teeming with consultants’ workshops, trainers, and seminars.

Albeit the touchy idea of race relations and regulatory latency may impede progress, firms may implement diversity efforts using tried-and-true approaches. In some cases, diversity management efforts may be used to enhance diversity in a firm by intentionally recruiting people from underrepresented groups and reducing barriers to such recruitment ( Emerson et al., 2012). In other circumstances, however, it requires efficient administration of an already diverse organizational workforce to maximize the potential of such individuals.

In line with the case study, diversity management is highlighted to increase the representation of ignored groups. Such a methodology should contain authoritative change parts: initiative responsibility, vision and mission improvement, representative cooperation, vital preparation, preparing, and obligation regarding A.A. and various destinations. Other than asset allotment, initiative responsibility is fundamental to any variety project. Administrators should give an excellent illustration of earnestness. Traditional culture has been featured as the main hindrance to managerial change and variety drives (Sussner et al., 2011)

Research Objectives

Main Objective

The main objective of the case study is to explore barriers to diversity in the New York State Education Department.

Specific Objectives

The all-encompassing reason for this study was to look at the changed kinds of barriers to a variety regarding the NYSED. All the more explicitly, this review was embraced to recognize the presence of boundaries that may be one of a kind to NYSED and to analyze proof of boundaries recognized in surviving writing on variety. The accompanying exploratory examination questions directed the review:

Research Questions

(a) What hierarchical boundaries can variety be unmistakably recognized?

(b) What kinds of imperatives are confronted by government organizations while carrying out a variety of drives?

(c) How can investigating hierarchical boundaries to variety illuminate specialists and researchers about the ramifications of overseeing variety in the public area?

Significance of the Study

Investigating the information gathered from the examination through internal reports and semi-organized meetings uncovered various social, underlying, and semantic hindrances. The outcomes from the review upheld lines to assortment distinguished in surviving writing. Average help necessities and the organization’s way of life hindered various endeavours. The impacts of informal organizations restricted responsibility in employing, and poor communication of the vision for type additionally slowed the variety drive.

Scope And Limitations of the Study

The case study can understand different barriers to diversity in organizations. Implementations can be put in place to prevent the obstacles. The limitation of the study is that it only focuses on the education department and not all the organizations.

Operational Definition of Terms


Diversity can and alludes to any apparent distinction among individuals, including age, geographic beginning, sexual inclination, residency in an association, and instructive foundation, notwithstanding ethnic-racial classifications. Advocates of overseeing variety fight that it is more than the privilege suggested by A.A. Overseeing variety likewise includes establishing a positive workplace in which acknowledgement of scope of contrasts makes them tasteful.


Chapter Two

Variety and Representative Bureaucracy

The government is concerned about more than simply diversity. They typically try to reflect the population to make suitable policy choices. Representative bureaucracy can be “passive” at times, as evidenced by the agency’s staff. The personality of the general populace (Bailey. 2015). On the other hand, the bureaucracy frequently actively represents one or even more groups in its clients by vigorously supporting rules that directly benefit one or more categories of an agency’s customers ( Gupta, 2019). AA and diversity programs may help with both active and passive representations.

Some condemn the representative bureaucratic system for its normative nature and measurement methods, but many see it augmentation America’s fundamental democratic beliefs. Idealists challenge the need for deliberate tactics to administer equitable, effective, and responsive government institutions. Jansens and Steyaert (2019) discovered, for example, that there was “much less agreement among supervisors that their work units would be more productive if they represented the demographic make-up of the labor population” (p. 145). More debate surrounds how representation assessment was done and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing demographic criteria, criteria for the workforce, as well as other metrics

Organization Changes and Barriers to Diversity        

They integrate historically marginalized populations into the workforce due to management’s internal drive or external forces. The delicate nature of ethnic interactions and bureaucratic inertia may hinder progress, yet firms may implement diversity programs employing tried-and-true methods  ( Sabharwal et al., 2014). Organizations can benefit from effective diversity management in two ways. In some instances, diversity management efforts may be used to improve diversity in an organization by explicitly recruiting persons Recruiting people from disadvantaged minorities, and reducing impediments to their enrollment. In other circumstances, however, it requires the effective administration of an already varied administrative staff

In the context of our study, we focus on diversity management to enhance the proportion of minority populations represented. This strategy must include organizational transformation elements such as strong leadership, mission and vision formulation, employee participation, strategy development, training, and accountability for AA and diverse goals (Kulkarni, 2015; Benschop et al., 2002). Good leadership is essential to any diversity endeavor, even if money is not allocated. Executives must provide an excellent example of honesty (Alkardry., 2017). The most major hurdle to administrative reform and diversity programs has been identified as organizational culture. However, several questions arise. Is corporate culture the same as government culture? Is it feasible to interpret diversity differently for government and private sectors? Will the same processes be utilized again and again to produce success?

Rice ( 2015)Over the past years, workplace diversity has become a frequently discussed topic. Academic interests The accurate analysis of workplace diversity has remained minimal. The majority of academics have shown their efforts in focusing on the importance of diversity in workplaces. Our case study aims to identify the significance of diversity in public administration considering the New York State Education Department, a public facility serving members of the public. Most scholars have even produced Diversity training facilitated through models, standards, and training modules. According to Prasad and Mills, diversity is still a notably inadequately and under-theorized phenomenon in organizational literature. ( p 6)


Current workplace diversity scholarship may be divided into functionalist viewpoints and critical perspectives. Functionalist ideas examine public administration diversity through the lens of corporate success. These techniques are based on the assumption that diversity’s beneficial and harmful aspects in public administration may be identified, monitored, and regulated to benefit the government ( Sabharwal et al., 2018). Many of the same philosophical and research traditions underpin this functionalist approach. Organizational psychology, management of human resources, and organization theory are all areas of study. Executive leadership, communication, job motivation, decision-making, and other themes focus on conceptual and empirical research—organizational development/learning, group dynamics, and corporate. The purpose of labor From a functionalist standpoint, both study and practice’s goal is to define how public administration can enhance government services and their effectiveness. Rice (2015) says

By managing diversity, I imply formulating and executing administrative processes and procedures to regulate individuals to maximize the potential benefits of diversity while minimizing the possible downsides. maximizing all workers’ capacity to contribute to corporate goals and function effectively without being limited by group identities such as gender, color, ethnicity, age, and department association (p.141)

Diversity Administration benefits the government and ethical, economic, and other groups. According to Riccucci (2021) and Pullen et al. (2017), worker diversity is not only the right thing to do, but it will ultimately boost the agency’s performance and global standing.

A critical philosophy follows another strategy to diversity in public services. It recommends that case studies move “beyond an unequivocal acceptance of the instrumental legitimacy of diversity” ( Roberson et al. 2017. , p. 434). Critical research and application for analysis on many management issues, such as “epistemological issues Technocracy and socialization (McKay and Avery, 2015). Such perspectives of view (for example, Marxist, feminist, etc.) Power and influence issues have far-reaching effects for all organization members, but they may be highly damaging for minority groups. (e.g., women, racial, people those with impairments, the elderly) Those in positions of authority frequently endeavor, even subconsciously, to maintain control, whereas those in lower ranks and the weak want to attain equity in the system.

As a consequence of this vitality, there are constant disagreements and attempts to resolve these conflicts (Sigh,2014, p 47). Thus, a critical assessment of diversity in public offices seeks deeper insights into the inner workings of firms to highlight the systemic discrepancies that exist at various corporate levels. This exposing of injustice, so to speak, might eventually lead to a considerable rethinking of such programs and the creation of emancipatory improvements ( Roberson et al. 2017. , p. 434), highlighting the importance of the organization’s regulations and procedures. In general, workplace diversity and practices are embedded in highly charged political, cultural, historical, and symbolic contexts perpetuating supremacy and injustice.

Exploratory Model of potential barriers.

These prior investigations were initially triggered by observations that the modern barriers research failed to account for approaches in which public services might have created institutional barriers to access—the analysis aimed to uncover the border of diversity in public administrations.  As the interviews continued, the work of Bailey (2015), Gupta (2019 ), and Rice  (2015 ) proved helpful. Their articles offer a variety of potential human service agency approaches to diversity problems while admitting that organizational responses to diversity may vary rather than being constant and static. Rice  (2015  ), for example, presents a paradigm for classifying human care organizations/agencies along a continuum spanning from discriminatory to non-discriminatory, excluding to ant discriminatory and inclusive. As shown in Figure I1, As the name implies, biased organizations foster supremacy while excluding or even dismissing differences. Middle-ground agencies/organizations are referred to as non-discriminatory organizations. Such organizations allow diversity but frequently conceal or disregard power imbalances between groups. They may promote diversity as a “good” issue, but they maintain that there is any noticeable or even subtle prejudice among their ranks.” In these organizations/agencies, diversity becomes a symbolic effort or a metaphorical offering towards the employees. As Minors points out, many organizations think that reducing barriers to work would result in equity. This presumption overlooks the impact of company culture on how welcome racial minorities feel like employees, investors, members of the board, and volunteers. (See page 437).

Women and racial minorities are accepted at this level. Still, they must adhere to the majority ideals of the department culture or achieve specific implicit employment standards that are aligned with their symbolic hiring.

Fig 11 from “Managing Diversity In Public Sector WorkForce” by Rice( 2015).


Anti-discriminatory departments are at the other extreme of the spectrum. Such institutions value diversity, do not allow discrimination, are diverse In practices and policies, constantly embrace inclusiveness, and work relentlessly to abolish excluding behaviours, procedures, and hurdles.

Departments Go from symbolic to substantive at this level, making significant efforts to include the public in judgment calls. Staff and management work together at all ranks to put an end to systemic inequality and create the department “equitable, adaptable, and accessible at all levels” (Riccucci 2021, p. 204). According to Minors, all human non-profits must aspire at this threshold, but only a few succeed despite attempts.

This discontinuity can be attributed to several factors. Many department Inequities arise due to traditions and uncontested policies in their current surroundings. Furthermore, despite great aspirations of excellent staff and management, these obstacles continue to put pressure on organizations’ workplace conditions (McKay and Avary, 2015). The problems and impediments are firmly ingrained in the department’s culture. According to Pullen et al. ( 2017, p. 326), the invisible and widely accepted use of authority sustains bureaucratic authority. Prejudices are inherent to organizations.

Individual actions can alleviate, but not eliminate, these issues. To restructure social systems, we must first recognize their enormous invisible dimensions. The primary silences and denials around privilege serve as a political tool in this case. Making these activities illegal leaves conceptions about equality and equity inadequate, protecting unearned rights and conferred authority ( Roberson et al., 2017). The majority of whites’ talk today appears to be about equal opportunity to reach a position of dominance while dismissing the reality of racism—systems of domination.

Change can only be achieved via continual evaluation and study of the agency’s internal workings — e.g., institutional reflection (Rice, 2015) — by an extensive network of persons from all organizational levels. Such evaluation and analysis are required to discover and eliminate boundaries and obstacles that form and remain inside the department.





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