Sample Psychology Paper on Memory: An Extended Definition



I performed pretty well in the game. I got all the words in the test right. However, I was unable to decipher the message. I did not realize that the coded words meant ‘did you pass this test?’ (National Geographic Video, 2017). The game shows that individuals fail to notice unexpected objects that pop up when focused on a specific task. For instance, the deciphered message was visible on the screen, but I could not notice it. This inattentional blindness suggests that our memory is sometimes unreliable.


The formal definition is that memory is “the capacity to reserve, retain, and recover data” (Zlotnik & Vansintjan, 2019). The process of remembering is known as encoding; the process of forgetting is known as recovering. Sensory, short-term, and muscle memory are the types of memory. Each type has a different way of storing information and how it can be retrieved. Sensory memory does not hold on to what it sees for long, yet it is a direct line between your eyes and your brain. Short-term memory stores a limited amount of data before transferring it to long-term memory. Muscle memory can store a vast amount of data but may require cues to help revive them.

Working Memory and Muscle Memory                                                   

Working memory is the capacity to retain, clasp and manipulate information in a limited time. Working memory is divided into auditory and visual realms. The auditory holds sounds, such as a phone number spoken aloud, while the visual hold sights such as written words or a mental picture of an object.

The encoding of long-term memories occurs through consolidation, which involves the movement of data from working memory to muscle memory (Derouet et al., 2019). This process occurs over time and is thought to involve strengthening synaptic connections in the brain.

Differences between Working Memory and Muscle Memory

Working memory is the capacity to retain data for a short time. Long-term memory is usually stored for more extended periods and may even be permanent. Working memory is limited compared to muscle memory; it can only store a few items at once, whereas long-term memory can store thousands or millions of items. In addition, working memory uses acoustic ciphering, while muscle memory applies semantic encrypting. This means that working memory has a more excellent capability of holding spoken data, while muscle memory has the capability of remembering important information. Finally, the retrieval of information from memory is also different. Short-term memory retrieval is typically more complex and less precise than long-term memory retrieval.’

Memory application to Career

The study of memory is a cornerstone of cognitive psychology. Memory information can be applied to several different domains. For example, memory knowledge can be used to improve educational practices by developing methods to help students better remember information. Additionally, memory research can inform our understanding of human behavior more generally, including why people sometimes behave in ways that they later regret.



Derouet, J., Doyère, V., & Droit-Volet, S. (2019). The Disruption of Memory Consolidation of Duration Introduces Noise While Lengthening the Long-Term Memory Representation of Time in Humans. Frontiers in Psychology10.

Zlotnik, G., & Vansintjan, A. (2019). Memory: An Extended Definition. Frontiers in Psychology10.

National Geographic Video. (2017). Kaltura.