Sample Political Science Paper on Reconstructing America

James Baldwin's ideas in the book 'Reconstructing the Nation: African American Political
thought and America's struggle for racial justice calls for an end of criticism by African authors
on Americans' racism. It further shows that America should be a home of freedom. His literature
illustrates how Americans' thinking, following past events, and social vulnerability compromised
their freedom. He describes their behavioral characteristics that whites and black Americans
lacked control over their feelings, such as fear, anxiety, guilt, and anger, which marked the
beginning of injustice issues. The essay below gives essential values that will help curb injustice
issues and enjoy their freedom.
Whites and black Americans should freely depend on each other in such ways as health and
economic aspects like trade in a respectful manner. They should have the freedom to move
around in all parts of the country, searching for educational and health facilities to satisfy their
needs. Therefore, they need to assist each other while observing high levels of respect. Racism
should be ended in the political aspect of the country. It brings the sense or, relatively, the value
in recognizing vulnerability in democratic citizenship. Notably, citizens' recognizing their
mortality could allow them to identify with an exhibit of generosity towards others whose
experiences are radically different.
Radicalizing individualism would be essential for racial justice. (Keffrelyn D,59) Responsibility
enables citizens to fight against injustice in their workplaces, for instance, which brings about
equality to all. Justice can be reached by being socially conscious, understanding, and, about a
positive way of thinking. Social activists should exercise the freedom to present their ideas,
opinions, and arguments to correct inefficiency in the judiciary's performance. In the country, in
solving national issues regarding economic and social inequality, that could be reported in the

court offices. Fighting for equality in the economic and social status will help whites and black
Americans achieve justice and freedom to perform and carry out their daily duties without fear.
Inequality is centrally a significant problem in the country. Regardless of the majority's belief
that our country is an exceptional nation that of people who love freedom, citizens, by all means,
should support the idea of equality. Americans should exercise democracy in their day-to-day
activities by giving equal chances to their citizens.
Moreover, America is the land of and inequalities should. Whenever equal opportunities are
given to individuals to overcome their difficulties, injustice is eradicated (Paul,109). Americans
should always embrace freedom as individualism, which makes citizens free as carrying out their
duties and responsibilities. This is because they will work knowing that none of their rights will
be violated as everyone has a better understanding of justice and freedom of their rights.
There should be an end to unethical practices by citizens, such as corruption. This would be the
right way of curbing injustice. Also, citizens should support the implementation of laws and
policies by the government authority regarding such actions. For people to enjoy their freedom,
they ought to treat each other equally (Gamble,98).
(Grande, 45) Failure to acknowledge or work against immorality leads to a form of disrespect.
This comes from an individual being irresponsible enough to correct his own mistakes or even
failing to learn from their past mistakes or those of others. This is also caused by adopting
attitudes or even being resistant to doing what is expected of you. Therefore, it is essential to
recognize this behavioral practice to ensure that leaders in any given field of work do not abuse
power and that courts would always make impartial judgments ( Marshall, 45).

Baldwin uses the strategy of giving historical stories about whites and black Americans to help
tackle racial injustice. After giving out facts about their past events, experiences, and actions, it
would help them avoid repeating the 'darkest truth' of what they did in the past (Vinod, 68). The
history of America's origin shows that black Americans were highly oppressed and most of their
violated. It would be the right way of helping citizens learn from their mistakes and adjust to
doing what is right, at the right time, and in the right place.
The history being explained here was about the anti-liberal, violent, and exploitive history of
slavery. The black Americans were seen to be oppressed in all their ways of life; by socially not
getting an education, better health and rights to shelter, food, and security; Politically by not
getting a chance to play roles in political positions and were economically exploited by being
overworked and getting low and late payments or sometimes no pay.
The above paragraph's information is not captured in the most historical books and as discussed
by Baldwin. Therefore, exposing such truths to the whites will improve the human's sense and
help whites and black Americans live-in unison. This would significantly curb injustice cases by
bringing about commitment to freedom, tolerance, equality, democracy, and accountability. It
would also disrupt American liberal thoughts to have traction or power over institutions, justice,
and help citizens live peacefully.
Acts of patriotism had been practiced during those historical moments. Citizens being aware of
such practices will help eradicate racism and ensure that rights to liberty are observed (Thomas
H, 44). Citizens should try as much as possible to work on their feelings of vast uncertainty,
violence, and anxiety, leading to acts of oppression. (Mary L, 100) Avoiding the above
immorality would lead to citizens having a sense of identity and would accord individuals their
freedom to live.

The government should advocate for freedom of one's choice to make their own decision. Acts
like rape and murder should be highly eradicated. Such violence should not be reported in the
country, and stern actions should be taken against perpetrators of injustice, freedom, and rights to
Religious institutions should be at the forefront, discouraging citizens from embracing the
feeling of alienation, anxiety, and desperation (Stanley,91). This would automatically attract
greediness and abuse of power and encourage high levels of injustice. This is because many
people will remain at the top of the social ladder and deprive others of their rights to equal
opportunities. It will also bring about increased humiliation and doubt about other self-
Citizens should also be challenged against adopting hidden unpleasant emotions and acts of
racial oppression that characterized American's history of Americans with injustice. Instead, they
should create a reputation far from that of the origin of American. This can be achieved by
exercising democracy and taking into account and adhering to all country's legal requirements. It
can also be achieved by creating and incorporating trustworthiness, tolerance, innocence, and
forgiveness. Also, doing away with acts of anger, rage, and thirst for revenge can be an essential
measure to reach justice.
There should be no misguided understanding of others' identity, for it contributes to issues of
injustice. Lack of control over one's rage increases racism and poses a threat to the freedom of
others (Lerner, 24). Stereotypes that give whites control over other citizens should be dealt with at
both the national and individual levels. These racial images persist, can deprive other citizens of
the freedom to listen and communicate or air out their opinions, which is essential for racial

A similar explanation that presumptions of whites being superior that black Americans should
not be made. Citizens should engage in with non – coercively and profitable talks and come with
agreements and solutions for solving their issues in case of political tension in the country. This
would help curb issues of violence and acts of dehumanizing other humans (Malinowski, 24). It
should be the duty of everyone in the country to fight against injustice. Changing from the past
acts of oppression should start with every individual (Hauerwas, 56). Being individually
responsible will give support to political institutions to be social or radical democratic.
Citizens should act out of freedom and self – conscious rather than acting in a forceful manner
that destroys justice and leads to hatred and oppression (Hayek, 69). Leaders should be able to
account for all their actions of injustice. The government should also advocate for increased
African Americans access to equal opportunities in the social and economic levels like equal
access to Medicare, school, housing, and job opportunities. Citizens should reassess and release
themselves from the past. They should come up with new ways of living with each other while
adopting moral values like respect and honesty.

Freedom, justice, and the right to liberty are essential for the survival of civilization. Throughout
his literature, he has broadly advocated for peace by encouraging people to exercise behavioral
practices such as responsibility, tolerance, respect, understanding others' identities, forgiveness,
and holding peace talks among citizens. This could be an effective way of reaching justice and
making people enjoy their freedom and rights.

Work Cited
Grande, Sandy. Red pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. Rowman &
Littlefield, 2015.
Brown, Keffrelyn D., and Anthony L. Brown. "Silenced memories: An examination of the
sociocultural knowledge on race and racial violence in the official school curriculum." Equity &
Excellence in Education 43.2 (2010): 139-154.
Dudziak, Mary L. Cold war civil rights: Race and the image of American democracy. Vol. 73.
Princeton University Press, 2011.
Lerner, Richard M. Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America's youth. Sage, 2004.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. Freedom and civilization. Routledge, 2015.
Hauerwas, Stanley. After Christendom: How the church is to behave if freedom, justice, and a Christian
nation are bad ideas. Abingdon Press, 2011.
Marshall, Thomas Humphrey, and Thomas Burton Bottomore. Citizenship and social class. Vol.
2. London: Pluto press, 1992.
Hayek, Friedrich August. Law, legislation and liberty: a new statement of the liberal principles
of justice and political economy. Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Thomas H. "Citizenship and social class." The welfare state reader 3 (2006).
Paul, Ron. Liberty defined: 50 essential issues that affect our freedom. Grand Central Publishing,
Gamble, Andrew. Hayek: The iron cage of liberty. Routledge, 2019

Sethi, Vinod. "Justice is the basic human law for any civilized society to ideally function.
Upholding the law is, in fact, the first essential, the first guidepost. Neither a nation nor a state
can survive unless it provides an efficient justice delivery system capable of alleviating the
concerns of the people within reasonable