Sample Philosophy Essay Paper on Lorraine Code

            In her texts, Code states that the “S-knows-that-p” epistemologies assume that an individual is aware of a certain proposition, p, if, and only if the individual satisfies a given variety of conditions. The epistemologies link with the ideas of neutrality and objectivity. The “S-knows-that-p” epistemologies operate on a homogenous, essential, and universal human tradition that allows knowers to act as substitutes. The ideas behind these epistemologies inhibit the ability to interplay reason and emotions obscuring the lines between power and knowledge. They, therefore, give birth to a conviction that the cognitive assets are neutral and politically pure, just like the procedures that established them. Therefore there is an assumption that knowledge assertions, especially the scientific declarations are unbiased and thus objective, however, throughout her text, Code argues that this is not the case.

            Code’s argument in her text gives a conclusion that the relevant and necessary conditions for creating empirical fact assertions do not exist. Her claim, therefore, is that female epistemologists always end up being relativists. However, the kind of relativism her text presents is effectively sophisticated and nuanced to get rid of the anxiety and scorn. In her text, Lorraine Code examines Philippe Rushton’s claims that asset that Orientals are more wise, collaborative, law-abiding and exhibit lower sexual licentious compared to the whites, and that the whites have a vast superiority over blacks in the same context. However, Code has the view that Rushton’s research triggers suspicions based on the reason that would not be addressed by the conventional “S-knows-that-p” epistemologies. Therefore she suggests that there is the need for a more effective and inclusive epistemological approach. Lorraine also referenced Cynthia Russet to illustrate the concept of feminism and the construction of womanhood.