Sample Paper on The prevalence Of HIV in African American communities

The prevalence of HIV in African American Southeast and Northeast Communities

1           Introduction

            Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has over the years been identified medically as the main causing agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This implies that AIDS is a health condition that is portrayed as a gradual reduction in the state of a person’s body health framework, which prompts the advancement of other life opportunistic diseases in the body system of a person (Brent, 2010). Medical microbiology has also proven that HIV is transmitted through coming into contact with blood of an infected person, vaginal fluid, semen or even breast feeding. Transmission frequently happens through unprotected sex, transmission from a mother who is infected to her unborn child at the time of birth or while in the process of breast feeding, and also through sharing of needles and other sharp objects by an infected person (Cohen, 1999). 

            HIV is one of the medical conditions that have been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States for instance, the Center for Disease Control established that over 1.2 million individuals are infected by the HIV disease on an annual basis. It further noted that one in five people (equivalent of 20%), of those infected people are in fact unconscious of their HIV status (Vogt, 2006). To be more categorical, it was established that the rate of HIV/AIDs infection is particularly very high among the African Americans in the United States, despite the meager representation of African American, which constitute of about 13 percent of the population. This implies that they represented a large portion of all new HIV cases that were reported in the United Sates in 2009 (Stone, 2009). In this regard, various factors have been recognized as the underlying reasons for this divergence, and different activities have been put in place to address this state of health emergency across the world. In addition to this, the CDC (2012) reports still had the findings that the prevalence rates of HIV/AIDs in the African-American communities were still high to an extent (Cohen, 1999)

            The HIV pandemic is thus an issue of high concern among African American communities, as it debilitates the health and prosperity of the most productive age group of men and women in the United States. While African Americans face one of the highest risks of HIV and AIDS compared to all the other racial/ethnic groups in the country, counteractive action deliberations have served to minimize the annual number of new HIV infections among African Americans for the last 10 years. Also, the latest CDC information revealed evidences of a decrease in new infections among African American women. This is because, for the longest time, the African American women have continued to be the most affected by HIV compared to the women of other races and ethnicity. Instead, it is the Black gay and cross-sexual men whose numbers of HIV infections have since increased than any possible groups in the United States.

            In as far as HIV treatment is concerned, the anti-retroviral treatment is the major method currently in use to minimize the HIV disease for those infected. With the modern innovations in treatment options, qualified medical professionals, and proper treatment can further slow down the process of a HIV infected person’s body to develop to the full blown stage of AIDS or succumbing to opportunistic infections for a long time. The major strategy in fighting against HIV is to ensure that the viral count is at minimum level in the body. The dynamic antiretroviral help (HAART) is the other essential treatment approach that is being used. Pharmacologic prophylaxis for opportunistic infections might none the less manifest in the long term.

            The main focus of this study is to establish the prevalence of HIV, particularly among the African Americans living in the South and North Eastern regions of the US. It seeks to depict the advancements made in behavior communication change to create and execute viable HIV/AIDS prevention medications for African Americans by focusing on research progress made by medical researchers. It will also highlight the various factors that make the HIV prevalence rate high among this target population according to (Dortzbach & Long, 2006).  

1.1         Statement of the problem for research

            Even though the recent years have seen a radical development in the process of HIV management and prevention, testing, advising, and treatment, there are high cases still reported, especially of minority groups in the United States that have not been given the full attention. The African Americans are an example of these sidelined groups in the fight against HIV as they are continuously being infected by HIV.  In addition to this, the prolonged dangers of HIV are far higher among African-Americans than all the other existing ethnic communities, especially compared to the Whites (Garcia, Noguer, & Cowgill, 2003). In 2009, the rate of new HIV infections in Black men was 6 times higher than that in White men, and the rate in African-American women was 15 times higher than the infection rates in White women. This indicates a serious gap that must be bridged in order to achieve equality in the provision of health services in the United States.

1.2         Research Justification/Rationale of the study

            Research findings in various studies have limited their information on matters pertaining to the needs of the African American communities. Various reasons have been cited for this gap in research including the; prevention of African Americans in studies, applied and methodological shortcomings of studies in which African Americans are incorporated, and the fluctuating focus on changing the behavior of people. A significant part of the behavior change research (i.e., studies utilizing exploratory or semi trial outlines) has not centered on African Americans subsequently leaving gaps in the logical information base on danger lessening procedures for this target group. For instance, in the meta-investigation of HIV prevention initiatives with grown-ups, it was noted that, in spite of the fact that African Americans comprised more than half of the members in the selected studies, none of the studies focused on them.

     Another reason that has been given for lack of sufficient HIV-related studies pertaining to the African Americans is, as a result, of the socio-cultural settings of African Americans. NIDA, a scientific oriented organization, has nonetheless begun bridging the gap by initiating research studies that are aimed at addressing these gaps. Research studies have had tendencies to treat Blacks in America as one group, disregarding the vital contrasts within the population that influence variables connected with practices that undermine their well-being, inspiration and proposition to change practices, and responsiveness to HIV counteractive action messages and methods. The truth is that not everyone who is within the African American communities would fundamentally distinguish themselves as African Americans (Gordon, 2004).

            Despite the fact that African American may be a preferred term by most of the Blacks whose origin is in the US,  the term is not understood by all persons of African descent living in America today. Besides, the social composition of African Americans has changed and so the name may not consistently apply to all the Black individuals.

 In HIV/ AIDS research, the differences by sexual orientation with a focus on women have been investigated. For instance, African American women’ practice of safe sex is impacted by their dominating perceptions in regards to condom use and the participation of their male sexual accomplices. Their agreeability with danger decrease messages may be influenced by stressors in their lives, their impression of risk, and other competing interests. Gender-oriented research will facilitate in understanding the practices of African American men and how their recognitions and encounters influence their health related decisions and practices. For instance, enthusiastic and social backing has been associated with lower HIV sexual danger practices in African American pre-adult males. Variables other than sex, which are critical in HIV prevention, are less considered within the African American population. These incorporate a geographic range (70% of the risk reduction research has been led in the Northeast and South; rural/urban home, age, ethnicity and spot of beginning (e.g., Black Hispanics, original migrants), financial status, religious conviction and sexual orientation (e.g., male-to-male sexual activities) according to (Cohen,1999). It is important to take note of the varying conundrum, which encourages the consideration of differences within the White population while disregarding any existing contrasts within the African Americans (Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2012).

1.3         Research questions

The key research question that this paper seeks to answer is:

  • What are the factors contributing to the increase HIV prevalence among African Americans in North and South Eastern America?

2           Literature Review

            Since the start of the HIV/AIDS pestilence, African Americans have been overrepresented among those living with and biting the dust from AIDS. Today, the malady precedes to affect African Americans more than any viable racial/ethnic group in the United States. While African Americans spoke to 13% of the U.S. population, they represented a large portion of all Americans living with HIV/AIDS and made up 50% of new HIV/AIDS determinations in 2004. The infection likewise keeps on having a lopsided effect on subgroups of African Americans, particularly young people and men who engage in sexual relations with men according to the CDC (2005) and the Kaiser Family Foundation in (2006). The amount of African Americans infected with HIV expanded from 2001 to 2004, a pattern steady with each observation report produced since efforts to track the AIDS plague started in 1981 (CDC, 2006; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006).

            Why does AIDS strike America’s Black group hardest? HIV/AIDS is one of an assembly of other health conditions that excessively affects African Americans. Access to treatment just somewhat clarifies this dissimilarity. African Americans living with HIV/AIDS are more probable than whites to have no medicinal scope (22% for Africans Americans contrasted with 17% for whites), and the individuals who do have scope are substantially less inclined to be secretly safeguarded than whites (14% contrasted with 44%) (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006). At the same time, different components are grinding away also: homelessness, medication use, doubt of the therapeutic stronghold and high rates of imprisonment, to name probably the most significant. Examining how HIV/AIDS crosses with these different aberrations can help us comprehend why the ailment is so common – thus lethal – for African Americans.

            The prevalence rates indicated that as of 2011, over 250,000 African-Americans have passed on of AIDS, which speaks to very nearly 40% of aggregate AIDS related deaths on the United States. African-Americans involve the best extent of HIV/AIDS cases among women, hetero men, infusion drug clients, and newborn children. For African-American men, the assessed lifetime danger of getting to be tainted with HIV is 1 in 16. The lifetime chance in African-American women is 1 in 30. These danger levels are much higher than white men and females whose lifetime danger is 1 in 104 and 1 in 588 individually. The country’s most elevated pervasiveness of HIV, 3%, is found in Washington, DC where 75% of those tainted are African American. African-Americans spoke to 48%, the biggest rate, of HIV findings among youthful and grown-up men amid 2005-2008. Transmission in this group was ordered most oftentimes as male-to-male sexual contact, which made up 61.1% of transmission rates. The second most incessant mode of transmission in this group was hetero contact, making up 23.1% of transmission. This is trailed by infusion medication use at 11.9%. Of African-American men with transmission credited to male-to-male sexual contact, 30.9% were 13-24 years of age, 28.7% were 25-34 years of age, and 23.7% were 35-44 years of age (Dortzbach & Long, 2006). 

            African-American females spoke to 65.9% of HIV judgments among women amid 2005-2008, speaking to the biggest group of women influenced by this malady. The most regular mode of transmission in this group was hetero contact, speaking to 85.2% of transmission rates. This was trailed by infusion medication use at 14%. Of African-American females with transmission ascribed to hetero contact, 17.1% were 13-24 years of age, 26.9% were 25-34 years of age, and 28.3% were 35-44 years of age. CDC appraisals demonstrate that blacks represent just about 50% of all new diseases in the United States every year (44 percent) and also practically a large portion of all individuals living with HIV (44 percent). More or less one in 16 Black men will be diagnosed with HIV amid their lifetime, as will one in 32 Black women. Among blacks, men represent 70 percent of new HIV diseases. Women represent 30 percent. Inside the African American group, gay and promiscuous men are the most influenced, took after by hetero women.

            Black men represent almost one-third (31 percent) of all new HIV diseases in the United States. The rate of new HIV infections for Black men is more than six times as high as the rate among white men, and more than twice that of Hispanic men. Among Black men, the lion’s share of new infections happens among men who engage in sexual relations with men (MSM). Youthful Black MSM is seriously influenced and now represents all the more new infections (4,800 in 2010) than whatever possible subgroup of MSM by race/ethnicity and age.

            In an investigation of 21 significant U.S. urban areas in 2008, practically a third (28 percent) of Black MSM were tainted, contrasted with 16 percent of white MSM. Among the Black MSM who were HIV-infected, about 6 out of 10 (59 percent) were ignorant that they were tainted. Contrasting 2008 with 2010, new HIV diseases among Black women diminished 21 percent (from 7,700 to 6,100); on the other hand, Black women represent 13 percent of all new HIV infections and the lion’s share (64 percent) of all new infections among women generally. The HIV frequency rate for Black women stays 20 times as high as that of white women, and very nearly five times that of Hispanic women.

2.1         HIV Prevalence in Southeast

            Observation information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with respect to HIV and AIDS in the United States demonstrate a critical and lopsided effect of HIV on the Southern United States. These information shows both a more prominent effect in Southern states regarding the extent of the population influenced in the locale and also an awry impart of the general number of people with HIV in the US. The following 2009 information from the CDC give proof of the unbalanced load of new HIV diseases (which incorporate all new infections reported paying little respect to phase of HIV infection) and of new AIDS conclusions in the South (Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2012). The rate of new HIV diseases for every 100,000 populations was the most astounding in the Southern US, showing that this area had the best extent of inhabitants testing positive for HIV in 2009. Eight of the 10 US states with the most elevated rates of new HIV infections were spotted in the South. Fifty percent of recently reported HIV diseases were in the South in spite of the fact that the South represented just 37% of the US population. The South represented almost a large portion of (46%) of new AIDS findings and the AIDS judgment rate in the Southern locale was just second to the AIDS finding rate in the Northeast district. An AIDS conclusion shows movement of HIV and is consistently decided either by a lab test, for example, a Cd4 test or by having particular AIDS characterizing medicinal conditions (Balnaves & Caputi, 2001). Eight of the 10 US states with the most elevated rates of new AIDS judgments were in the South.

            Information from the CDC with respect to number and rates of individuals living with HIV at year end 2008 give confirmation of the awry impact of the diseases in the US South. HIV pervasiveness information demonstrates that 43% of individuals living with HIV in the US live in the Southern area (Vogt, 2006). The Southern locale has the second most elevated HIV commonness rate for every 100,000 populations. The Northeastern district keeps on having the most noteworthy HIV commonness rate principally because of the high pervasiveness rates in New York and New Jersey – states where the pandemic started and where individuals have been existing with the ailment for long times of time. Supports pervasiveness is likewise high in numerous Southern states, as Southern states/District of Columbia speak to 6 of the 10 zones with the most astounding AIDS predominance rates (National Minority AIDS Council, 2006).

            A group of Southern states has been especially influenced by the HIV scourge lately and offers regular attributes, for example, general poorer health, high destitution rates, and a social atmosphere that possible helps the spread of HIV and weakness conclusions for those tainted. With the end goal of this report, these states are alluded to as the “focused on states” and incorporate Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and East Texas. The CDC HIV reconnaissance facts for the focused on states are especially striking: The focused on states have the most elevated rates of new HIV diseases contrasted with different areas of the nation and to whatever is left of the Southern US. Eight out of ten states with the most noteworthy rates of new HIV diseases are focused on Southern states. 35% of new HIV diseases were in the focused on states, which hold just 22% of the US population. Six of the 10 states with the most astounding HIV commonness rates are focused on Southern states. The focused on Southern states lead the country in new AIDS analysis rates took after by the Northeast locale and afterward whatever remains of the Southern states.cdc information in regards to metropolitan territories show that 9 of the 10 metropolitan regions with the most astounding rates of new HIV infections are in the focused on Southern states. Nine of the 10 metropolitan zones with the most noteworthy predominance rates for every 100,000 were additionally in the focused on locale.

            Various factors have since been attributed contributing to the increased levels o HIV prevalence among the African Americans in the Southern part. To begin with is the general health status of the region. The Southern part of the US has a percentage of the worse general health rankings in the US, as 9 of the 10 states with the poorest health appraisals are in the South. The Southern district is likewise excessively influenced by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A case in point is in the year 2009, when it was ranked in position 9 of the 10 states with the most noteworthy syphilis rates were in the South. The abnormal amounts of STDs in the focused states provides the clarification for the higher occurrence of HIV in this district, as STDs have been reliably found to promote HIV transmission.

            The second factor attributed as a cause of the current situation is poverty. The South and especially the focused on states have a portion of the largest amounts of neediness in the US. Nine of the 10 states with the most minimal average livelihoods are found in the South and 6 of the 10 states with the most astounding destitution levels are placed in the South. Half of these states are in the target states including Mississippi, which has the most astounding neediness level (28%) in the US. Destitution is connected with poorer health because of components, for example, absence of satisfactory social insurance gets to and lowers levels of education. Poorer health thus prompts more prominent trouble getting away neediness, making an endless loop of destitution, lower levels of instruction, and poorer health (Garcia, Noguer, & Cowgill, 2003). There is expanding confirmation that HIV is gathered in low-pay groups, especially in the South, and states with the most minimal salaries have the best HIV case casualty rates (HIV-related deaths among individuals with HIV).

            Large amounts of neediness and diseases likewise bring about more noteworthy trouble for Southern states to sufficiently react to the human services and asset needs of their subjects. Research of Medicaid using for HIV forethought uncovered that Southern states spread less people with HIV and pay less for every person with HIV than the national normal, notwithstanding having the most prohibitive Medicaid qualification criteria and giving less Medicaid profits than different locales in the nation (Balnaves & Caputi, 2001). 

            Race/Ethnicity and Gender Issues have also been cited as factors that contribute to the current state of affairs among the African Americans. They are highly infected by HIV and also categorized in to low-salary groups in the South; hence they end up having their demands increased almost twice that of the White people (Gordon, 2004). On the other hand, research has reliably showed a connection between African American race and poorer health get to much in the wake of controlling for money and health protection status. Various potential clarifications for this marvel among African Americans have been recognized, including an expansive extent of African Americans with flimsy lodging and higher rates of imprisonment among African Americans, HIV-related disgrace issues, absence of trust in the legislature and health awareness frameworks and saw racial separation in human services. Also, African Americans are more prone to report that homosexuality is ethically wrong (64% vs. 48% among Caucasian Americans), perhaps making the requirement for diverse sorts of mediations that would be viable for African American men who have intercourse with men.

            The extent of new HIV diseases happening among women is most elevated in the South and Northeast and African-American women are especially influenced in the South, as the larger part of new HIV analyses (71%) among women in this area were among African-American women. African-American women are more prone to report hetero HIV transmission than white women (National Minority AIDS Council, 2006).

            The awry impact of HIV in minority groups in the South is not restricted to African-Americans, as Hispanics/Latinos are additionally determinedly affected in this area. A large portion of the new HIV analyses among Hispanics/Latinos happened in the Southern US (among 37 states with CDC evaluated HIV disease information) and 6 of the 10 states with the most elevated HIV infection rate among Hispanics/Latinos from 2006-2009 were in the South.          Another factor is the state geography and their culture. The social conservatism in the South, especially among the focused on states likely assumes a part in discernments and encounters of shame among individuals living with HIV in this region. Stigma has been demonstrated to have negative consequences for preventive practices and health conclusions. HIV-related disgrace has been discovered to be more prominent in country regions (Gordon, 2004).  Provincial territories likewise have extra difficulties in tending to HIV because of delayed fly out to get to give a second thought, absence of budgetary assets and lacking supply of HIV consideration suppliers. The South has the most noteworthy number of people with HIV living in country regions so these issues are especially remarkable in this region.41 Some of the Southern laws and strategies, particularly among focused on states, have likewise been embroiled in encouraging the spread of HIV in the South. For instance, most focused on states have forbearance based sex training or absence of sex instruction by and large, which neglects to plan high school students to protect themselves from HIV and STD transmission. Moreover, laws that criminalize HIV-related practices and disallow needle trade are normal in the South. These laws further minimize populations at amazingly high risk for gaining HIV, for example, sex labourers and infusing medication clients, and can debilitate influenced people from HIV testing and treatment (National Minority AIDS Council, 2006).

            Epidemiological information from the CDC unmistakably demonstrate an awry impact of HIV in the Southern states both in new HIV infections and in rates of people living with HIV. The focused on Southern states have been especially affected by HIV malady. The HIV case casualty rates in the South, particularly in the focused on states, are striking and demonstrative of the discriminating need to enhance discovery and treatment of HIV in these states. Disappointment to enough treat people with HIV has genuine outcomes for the people included and additionally for the influenced groups, as untreated HIV infection is significantly more transmissions in the region.

2.2         Summary of the literature review

            In the course of recent years, AIDS has had a decimating effect on the African-American group. Today, African Americans get to be tainted with, and succumb to HIV/AIDS significantly more than any viable racial or ethnic group. In 2004, the latest year for which national observation information were accessible at the time of composing this report, African Americans embodied just 13% of the U.s. population however represented a large portion of all new HIV/AIDS findings. African American grownups and youths are 10 times more prone to have AIDS than whites. The infection strikes subgroups of African Americans, particularly young people and gay/promiscuous or same-sex adoring men (from now on alluded to as men who engage in sexual relations with men). In a period when antiretroviral treatment can help HIV-infected people lead healthier lives, African Americans with HIV/AIDS are more probable than other racial groups to put off therapeutic care and get to be hospitalized, with the perception that they are more prone to die from HIV-related reasons. Indeed, more than 50% of all individuals who passed on from AIDS-related causes in the U.S. in 2002 were African American. Keeping in mind progresses in solution have brought about AIDS deaths among whites falling by 19% from 2000 to 2004, they declined by just 7% among African Americans.

3           Sample size of the population

The hypothesis of this study is that the people of African American origin are one of the most affected victims of the HIV/AIDs prevalence in America. Based on this hypothesis, the sample size population for this study will be selected through random sampling. The inclusion criteria for participants are that they must be of the African American origin of eighteen years and above and finally be from either the north or eastern regions.

4           Study Design/Strategy of Inquiry

            Quantitative research is clarifying phenomena by group numerical information that is broke down utilizing numerically based routines (as a part of specific detail)’. Quantitative methodology is when the researcher basically uses post positivist cases for creating learning (i.e., circumstances and end results considering, decrease to particular variables and speculations and inquiries, utilization of estimation and perception, and the test of hypotheses), utilizes procedures of request, for example, tests and studies, and gathers information on decided ahead of time instruments that yield factual information. Quantitative exploration is normally thought to be the more investigative methodology to doing social science. The center is on utilizing particular definitions and deliberately operationalizing what specific ideas and variables mean.

            Quantitative research utilizes strategies received from the physical sciences that are intended to guarantee objectivity, unwavering quality and the capacity to sum up. They look to push most extreme control over the inquiries and potential answers and frequently consolidate likelihood examining strategies to take into consideration measurable deduction to the bigger study population. The analyst is viewed as outside to the genuine research, and results are relied upon to be replicable regardless of who behaviors the exploration.

            Quantitative routines help to answer inquiries, for example, whom, the amount, and what number of. Where likelihood examining is utilized, measurable dissection will give exact assessments to study variables, for example, frequencies, midpoints, extends, means, and rates, at a known and quantifiable level of trust. The plan is to accumulate information to test a decided ahead of time speculation and just replies to those inquiries/variables included in the poll are gathered. Inquiries are not open-finished and respondents are required to give short ‘replies’.

            This maneuvers dissection, yet confines the degree to which respondents take an interest and can give clarifications that they see (causes, method of reasoning). Rather, clarifications are looked for by thinking about affiliations and conceivably causal connections between variables. Exact assessments, upheld by measurable hypothesis, are regularly precious for choice making and promotion on the grounds that they are hearty and dispassionately certain if the information is gathered and examined effectively. The best shortcoming of the quantitative methodology is that it can take human conduct outside of any relevant connection to the subject at hand in a manner that expels the occasion from its true setting. Components or variables let alone for the information group instrument are basically not considered in research.

            Qualitative research systems give more accentuation on translation and furnishing purchasers with complete perspectives, taking a gander at connections, ecological submersions and a profundity of understanding of ideas. As scientists battle, one reason that quantitative research revels in far reaching uplifted admiration in the control “lies in the prescient focal points his technique for request has. In fact, the capacity to make right expectations is one of the additionally extraordinary aspects of quantitative system.” obviously, to make such a case Worrall (and other similar researchers) need to work from the supposition that forecast is fundamentally a quantitative errand. While one unquestionably can measure past and current occasions in the social world, and utilization what is and has been as a premise for foreseeing what will be, to do so does not require factual investigation. All things considered, we all foresee what our days and fates will be similar to, taking into account the particular qualitative understanding of the settings and interactional systems. However, for this study to have some relevance, there is need to indicate qualities of relationships to know how likely things are to be anticipated correctly. Obviously, this is yet restricted of attaining such an objective, and not so much a predominant means for accomplishing such an objective (Center for Disease Control, 2014).

            Quantitative exploration neglects to record for the full set of conceivably powerful components that may be essential for seeing how encounters are built, mixed bags of cases are comparable and/or distinctive or observations and perspectives are compelled and encouraged. With quantitative exploration it is important for the analyst to recognize the full scope of potential impacts preceding directing a study; if a variable is excluded in the information from the earliest starting point phases of a venture, it can never be known whether that issue truth be told is essential for encounters, courses of action or societies (Newman & Benz, 2006). Notwithstanding, as an investigative strategy that permits, and depends on the development of an extensive variety of unanticipated impacts, the danger of passing up a great opportunity for distinguishing what is critical is minimized in qualitative exploration.

4.1         The dependent and independent variables

            Variables are any normal for the unit we are intrigued by and need to gather (e.g. sexual orientation, age, respect toward oneself). The mark variable alludes to the way that this information will contrast between units. In this study, the independent variable is the high predominance of HIV. African Americans face a higher danger of being presented to HIV infection with every sexual experience than do other racial/ethnic groups. This is on account of the commonness of HIV is more prominent in African American groups than in any viable racial/ethnic group, and on the grounds that African Americans are liable to have sexual relations with other African Americans. Accordingly, even with levels of individual danger practices (e.g., sex without a condom, different accomplices) that are similar to different races/ethnicities, African Americans face a higher danger of disease with every sexual experience.

             The dependent variables will include factors like the higher pervasiveness of sexually transmitted infections. The predominance of STDs is higher in African Americans than in whatever possible racial/ethnic group. Since STDs can put people at higher danger for HIV infection, higher STD predominance may help higher HIV occurrence among Black men and women. The stigma placed on them: Fear of revealing danger conduct or sexual introduction may keep African Americans from looking for testing, prevention and treatment administrations, and backing from loved ones. Financial components: The social and monetary substances that exist in some African American groups may prompt expanded HIV risk. These incorporate neediness, racial segregation, less get to social insurance, and higher rates of detainment, which can upset interpersonal organizations and reduction the amount of accessible accomplices for women.

            Essential aversion of HIV in the African-American group comprises of systems to avert transmission of infection. The Center for Disease Control has recorded ways that people can wipe out or diminish their danger of getting to be infected with HIV through sexual contact by: Abstaining from sex or deferring the first sexual experience, being dedicated to one accomplice or having fewer accomplices, using male or female condoms reliably and accurately. Various media fights, social advertising, and companion training have been intended to push one or a greater amount of these danger diminishing strategies.

            A fundamental method incorporates thorough sex instruction for youngsters. Paramount themes incorporate arranging sound connections and precise data about how to practice more secure sex. Studies have demonstrated that this methodology is more compelling in sexually transmitted disease aversion than forbearance just education. Different studies have demonstrated that if utilized effectively and reliably, condoms are exceedingly compelling at avoiding HIV infection. As there is no confirmation that elevating condoms prompts expanded sexual movement among youngsters, numerous have noted that condoms ought to be made accessible to everything who need them.

            Other essential aversion systems incorporate male circumcision and prevention furthermore treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases. The Center for Disease Control has been executing a high-effect methodology to HIV aversion in accordance with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. The center is on actualizing procedures that have demonstrated the best potential to decrease new HIV infection in populations of most astounding danger. These activities incorporate the Act against AIDS battle, which focuses on the African-American group. As a substantial piece of this battle, the Act against AIDS Leadership Initiative is a $16 million, six-year organization with national associations to give basic subsidizing and to strengthen HIV anticipation endeavors in African-American communities.

            Optional HIV prevention involves early identification and brief treatment of the ailment. Flow rules from the Centers for Disease Control propose routine withdraw HIV screening as a typical piece of therapeutic practice for all patients matured 13-64 without the former prerequisite of marked assent or directing. Screening ought to be intentional and attempted just with the understanding’s learning and comprehension. People at high risk for HIV disease ought to be screened for HIV in any event every year. This suggestion was amended from past rules focused around seen HIV danger of the patient, which neglected to distinguish an extensive bit of individuals with HIV infection. HIV screening has been proposed to be directed routinely in all pregnant women since 1995 by the Center for Disease Control and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. For pregnant women, withdraw HIV screening ought to be included in the routine board of pre-birth screening tests for all pregnant women. Separate composed assent for HIV testing ought not to be needed. Rehash screening in the third trimester is prescribed in specific ranges with hoisted rates of HIV disease among pregnant women.

5           Data Collection

The major tool of data collection for this study will be through sample surveys. Researchers describe sample survey as the type of quantitative data collection approach which s often flexible to be used in dealing with almost any topic as it involves the concept of measuring variables. In this case, it will be helpful in measuring HIV prevalence. Overviews utilizing questioning systems frequently use close ended questions recorded in surveys that are consistently connected to every respondent. The goal is to assemble information to test a decided ahead of time speculation and just replies to those inquiries/variables included in the survey are gathered. The first approach will be to use survey of research data sources including those from the antenatal treatment centers where expectant mothers go for frequent check-up of their child birth and for guidance from medical employees. Usually, the blood samples of the female patients are often examined for HIV. This will be approached in a sensitive way to avoid stigmatization.   Another source of data will be from the reports of HIV occurrences.  Secondly, population-based serosurveys which have been performed previously will provide reliable sources of information. Moreover, multiround and longitudinal reviews have been applied in gathering information on HIV trends and patterns of infection in these areas.

This research, however confines the degree to which respondents take an interest and can give clarifications on what they see (causes, reason). Rather, clarifications are looked for by analyzing affiliations and possibly causal connections between variables (Celentano & Beyrer, 2008). The after-effects of quantitative example overviews are effortlessly broke down and communicated as numbers, rates, midpoints (means), scales or other numeric presentations. Specimen overviews may incorporate a few inquiries or routines that are open-finished. In research, these responses are frequently classified and abridged in a quantitative manner (e.g. the shifting reasons given for yield disappointment are classified into 5 potential outcomes to yield a straight out variable, including an “other” class for rare reactions).

            Surveillance data has often been used by research organizations in the HIV related studies to monitor the levels of disparities, the prevalence patterns and other opportunistic infections. This has helped in making identifications on the existing disparities or differences concerning minority groups based on their race, ethnic background, geographic locations, religious affiliations, gender among other factors under study. In this study, the surveillance data will be applied to give description on the general HIV/AIDS burden in the north and southern east regions of the United States. As a result, it is hoped that in the long term, this may help stakeholders in assessing the level of burden in various population groups like African Americans compared to others to inform funding and resource allocation.

6           Data Analysis

            The data in this study will be collected using the quantitative methods. In the process of studying the sexual oriented actions among African Americans in this research, various factors will be considered in data analysis and interpretation such as the social impacts of their sexual behavior/patterns and trends, source accessibility and the social perspectives will all be critical mediating factors in decoding data. These will impact the researcher’s ability to estimate or change the risk-related activities of individuals or to make generalizations results beyond the study group.

Over the years, researchers have often argued that quantitative techniques of data collection provide information that is accurate and highly objective in nature. This is majorly because these methods are standardized methods and can easily be replicated if need be. The quantitative design allows an analysis to be done using statistical techniques that are sophisticated. In most cases, quantitative design is used to derive summative types of evaluations that have hard facts to me measured and judged, unlike in qualitative research design that is best suited for the formative types of evaluation (McCree, Jones, & O’Leary, 2010). 

            The data collected in this study will be analyzed using the SPSS and will be coded in line with the major areas of study that will have been collected from the sampled surveys. This step of applying the open code system will enable the researcher to explore data meaning. The key areas of categorizing the data collected will most likely be along the stigmatization among African American communities living with HIV, the key reasons for HIV prevalence among these communities, the HIV transmission modes among those infected, the levels of medication adherence, the willingness to disclose HIV status among those infected. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and were coded around these major themes.

            The researcher will apply various aspects of quality assurance in order to ensure that the quality of the data collected will not be in any way compromised and will instead, be validated. This will include triangulation (cross checking of the data collected), taking much time in analyzing the surveys or what is commonly referred in research as the field prolonged exposure. With the triangulation approach, the researcher will use various surveys to develop and overall overview of the situation of HIV prevalence depending on the statistics given by the various sources. This will be achieved by crosschecking articles from credible journals, websites, such as those of the Centre for Disease Control, books, health reports, among other key health data at national levels. Specifically, the researcher will focus on the Pub Med search in order to gain access to credible sources with journals by using key words in this research like the disparities of health, HIV prevalence, and African-American communities among others. The researcher will then make a decision of selecting only the relevant research documents that will be included as references. The concept of utilizing many sources of data simultaneously and research methods is aimed at reducing research errors and biases.

7           Ethical Considerations

In terms of the ethical issues involved, the researcher will strive to ensure the absolute data protection of the selected participants in the study. This is especially as a result of high possibilities of them facing both current and future incidences of discrimination  hence is an area that is likely to raise ethical dilemmas. This is because while these HIV/AIDs problems may impact any social and ethnic groups it is particularly a major challenge for the African American who are regarded as a minority group that faces forms of discrimination in the community. 

Another ethical issue that will be highly factored in this study is the issue of informed consent. All participants will be required to sign forms of consents to indicate their willingness to participate and provide their HIV related data voluntarily. The idea of them feeling free to pull out of the research at any given point will also be clarified at the onset, so that they can feel comfortable to quit at their free will.

8           Study limitations

            This study will focus on HIV prevalence among the African Americans in the South and North Eastern regions of the United States.

References

Balnaves, M., & Caputi, P. (2001). Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An       Investigative Approach. London: Sage Publications

Brent, R. J. (2010). Setting Priorities for HIV/AIDS Interventions: A Cost-benefit Approach.           Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub.

Celentano, D. D., & Beyrer, C. (2008). Public health aspects of HIV/AIDS in low and middle        income countries: Epidemiology, prevention and care. New York: Springer.

Cohen, C. J. (1999). The boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the breakdown of Black politics.        Chicago [u.a.: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Center for Disease Control. (2014). HIV among African Americans. Retrieved from             http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/CDC-HIV-AA-508.pdf

Dortzbach, D., & Long, W. M. (2006). The AIDS crisis: What we can do. Downers Grove, Ill:      Intervarsity Press.

Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research. (2012). HIV/AIDS epidemic in the       south reaches crisis proportions in last decade. Retrieved from http://chpir.org/wp-        content/uploads/2012/11/HIVAIDS-Epidemic-in-the-South-Reaches-Crisis-Proportions-      in-Last-Decade.pdf

Garcia, A. A., Noguer, I., & Cowgill, K. (2003). HIV/AIDS in Latin American countries: The        challenges ahead. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Gordon, J. U. (2004). The Black male in white America. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gilbert, D. J., & Wright, E. M. (2003). African American women and HIV/AIDS: Critical responses. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Johnson, E. H. (1993). Risky sexual behaviors among African-Americans. Westport, Conn. u.a.:    Praeger

McCree, D. H., Jones, K. T., & O’Leary, A. (2010). African Americans and HIV/AIDS:     Understanding and addressing the epidemic. New York: Springer.

McCree, D. H., Jones, K. T., & O’Leary, A. (2010). African Americans and HIV/AIDS:     Understanding and addressing the epidemic. New York: Springer.

Newman, I., & Benz, C. R. (2006). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring       the interactive continuum. Carbondale, Ill. [u.a.: Southern Illinois Univ. Press.

National Minority AIDS Council. (2006). Health disparities in HIV/AIDs, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in the United States issues, burden, and   response: Recommendations for confronting the epidemic in black America. Retrieved            from             http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/healthdisparities/docs/NCHHSTPHealthDisparitiesReport11 07.pdf

NASTAD. (2010). Black* women and HIV/AIDs: findings from southeast regional consumer      and provider focus group interviews. Retrieved from       http://www.nastad.org/Docs/highlight/201038_NASTAD final.pdf (NASTAD, 2010)

Ragsdale. H. B. L. (2012). Study of the lack of HIV/AIDs awareness among African American women: A leadership. S.l.: Trafford on Demand Pub.

Swanson, B., & Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. (2010). ANAC’s core curriculum for            HIV/AIDS nursing. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Stone, V. E. (2009). HIV/AIDS in U.S. Communities of Color. New York, NY: Springer.

Vogt, W. P. (2006). Quantitative research methods for professionals. Boston, MA:             Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Vernon, I. S. (2001). Killing us quietly: Native Americans and HIV/AIDS. Lincoln [u.a.: Univ. of Nebraska Press.