Role of Attractions in Destination Development
Over the years, the role of attraction in destination development has been immense. The attraction helps to stimulate growth in the different economies. Since, it provides strategic approaches in destination branding that forms a significant role in economic growth. Attraction boosts the local infrastructure to cater for efficient deliveries and transport of tourists to various destinations. Local attractions facilitate the continuity of the local communities especially when they are involved in the entertainment activities. Consequently, it spreads a positive image about a particular community and the country as a whole. The site, size, main markets, ownership and location of destination determines the type of destination attractions. In attracting visitors, the different regions and locations, it plays a crucial role in destination development. Therefore, the paper will seek to discuss the role of attractions in development of Buckingham Old Gaol of London and the effects on other stakeholders of the attraction site.
Using the Buckingham Old Gaol in London as the destination site, attractions differ from one region to another. The attractions range from individual owned small parks to large state governed game parks and reserves. They serve a wide market including the locals, regional and international tourists (McClanahan and Young, 2006, p. 231). The paper will provide a detailed analysis of the Buckingham monument in terms of the attractions available and the services provided to visitors. (Satish, 2008, p.34). Attraction boosts the protection and the preservation of plants and animals, maintaining the ecosystems. The negative influences include the risk of moral decadence due to introduction of new provocative dressing methods of some tourists, destruction of local habitats by the disposal of non-biodegradable materials in the animal settled areas and introduction of hard drugs (Cole and Morgan, 2010, p.564).
Size and market of Buckingham Old Gaol
The size of Buckingham Old Gaol monument is approximately 750 acres, which includes 40 monuments and 4 lakes. The attractions available to visitors include the old Gaol, the flora Thompson collections, and the Sir George Gilberts Scott. In addition, there are a large number of streetscapes and ancient churches at the site. Other attractions include landscape gardens, the Stowe school and the Silverstone circuit. . The markets for these attractions differ in size, number and ownership. The main markets of these destinations are the European and American tourists who regularly tour these zones in seasonal variations at different times of the year. The events that attract tourists to the Buckingham old Gaol are education, Research and entertainment oriented. Many historians are attracted to the site for research purposes due to its diverse historical data. Similarly, this destination site is a source of recreation to many tourists who are attracted by the natural sceneries of the monument and the surrounding environs.
The attraction mix of Buckingham Old Gaol is related to a variety of special events throughout the year. The monument provides a recreation center for visitors in London including participants of commonwealth games. Purposely built as a prison center, the monument now serves as a museum, a gift shop, and tourist center. It is also a historical bookstore and a distinctive venue to hire for holding an individual’s activity. The services that are available to visitors include restaurants, café and pub services. The site has facilities to cater for the visitors, which include a multipurpose sports hall and a swimming pool.
The main source markets for the destination attraction visitors include the European and American countries. The visitation patters of the source markets are influenced by several factors. They include the climatic conditions of destination sources, perceived or real security states of the destinations and the holiday patterns of the origin countries (Boniface and Cooper, 2012, p.76). Climatic factors that influence tourist visitation patterns include temperatures, radiations, and humidity and wind chill effects. For example during the winter seasons of America, many tourists flock to Buckingham where the climate is considerably warm the climate is hot and warm. Other factors include the snow depth and wind speed in the mountainous areas that facilitates skating and skiing activities.
During winter, some tourists will prefer to visit countries that are extremely cold with the ice-capped mountains for recreation purposes. Climatic factors also have an impact on the health and safety of tourists and therefore influences visitation patters (Mok et al., 2013, p.112). Hot and dry seasons in visitatining destinations pose threats to tourists especially the risk of forest fires. For example in 2010, the tourist numbers in Buckingham declined by 40% due to drought conditions that posed dangerous wild life conditions. In addition, weather conditions influence efficiency inn transportation. Poor visibilities during winter rainstorm affect the aviation’s industry and reduce the number of tourists in those countries.
Cultural, religious and social activities also affect the visitation patterns. These include the visits by religious followers to sacred destinations such as the Mecca by Muslims as well as visits to international social activities such as the Olympic Games and world cup (Nagle, 2009, p. 897). These events draw large numbers of tourists to the destinations where they are held and when the event is over, the numbers decline tremendously. Another important factor is the influence of security in which the source market governments warn their citizens against visiting war torn nations. During such periods, the number of tourists reduces in the destination countries. Other institutionalized factors include the availability of leisure time, school holidays and the travel habits.
Various methods are used to market tourist to the potential visitors by destination markets. These include creating awareness in the source markets about the attractions through advertisements, publications and branding world events (Bramwell, 2006, p.765). For example, the British government sets funds to sponsor events such as Olympic Games in an attempt to enhance more tourists’ visitation. Through the various tourist-enhancing agencies, the government ensures that tourism programs are globally advertised which has increased its tourist base. Another way that has been used is maintaining and building efficient transport networks to increase the efficiency to tourists in the visitation areas. Many destinations with diverse attractions have initiated programs to promote tourism by funding road, rail and air transport systems to enhance the number of tourists. In addition, the governments have expanded the number of attractions by promoting privately owned game parks and reserves, increasing the number of attractions such as development of Eco tourism projects and community wildlife programs.
Stage of Development of this Destination
The destination is characterized by rising high class and in the developed regions and middle class individuals in the in the remotes. In Buckingham, there are a huge percentage of people living above the poverty line index average as indicated by the average per capita income (Carbi, 2004, p 98). However, in the less developed parts, there is a huge investment in infrastructural development with high potential GDPs. Other regions of Buckingham have low levels of GDP and rising potentials of untapped markets in the tourism industry. In all the three nations, tourism industry is vibrant accounting to over 10% of the continental tourism industry (Reynish et al., 2009, p. 654).
Technological, Economic, Social and Environmental issues
Technological, economic, social and environmental issues are likely to affect the tourism industry in Buckingham regions in several ways. The growth in technology as indicated by growing adoption of information technology is likely to boost the tourism industry (Charles and Ritchie, 2009, p. 65). In particular, the adoption of ecotourism and adoption of efficient strategies of handling tourists especially at the major airports has increased the tourism base. In future, this destination market is likely to attract more customers than any other destination (Newmark 2002, 654). The economic factors that are likely to affect the tourism industry include the initiation economic projects, government’s action in controlling macroeconomic variables that affect the exchange rate s and inflation (Malviya, 2005, p.521). If the governments of these destinations embark of economic project such as building rail, road, air and water projects, then it is likely that the number of tourist will increase and vice versa. Similarly, if the exchange rates are maintained to reasonable levels and low levels of inflation, the number of tourists will rise in future (Poser, 2008, p.546).
The social factors that may influence the tourism industry include rise in crime levels, national security and social cultural changes of the destination markets. If the state of the security deteriorates, the number of visitors will be scare and the tourism industry will decline. For example, terrorism threats in the past in the destination markets are likely to deter the travel and movement of visitors. If efforts are not put in place to contain the situation, the future of tourism industry will be at stake (Sharpler and Telfer, 2002, p.765). Consequently, the rise of crimes and tourism kidnaps will, reduce the number of visitors. In the future, if the local customs are eroded by new lifestyles, tourism will be affected. Many visitors whose motive is to study the local cultures and customs are unlike to get the incentive to visit their destination markets.
The environmental issues include the impact of climatic changes. When climates change such as increase in temperatures due to global warming, tourists will run away from those destinations in future (Myriam et al, 2004, p. 216). Thus, efforts should be maintain to curb the effects of climate changes to preserve the tourist sites. If temperatures rise, snow in the mountains melts, drought conditions appear and attraction sites are destroyed reducing tourism activities (Timothy, 2004, p. 342).
The paper sought to evaluate how tourism improves economy in the destination markets. Through tourism, employment opportunities are created, infrastructure improves and the local customs are strengthened. The negative effects of tourism include introduction of harmful drugs, erosion of local cultural practices and destruction of the environment. Tourist activities can be global such as the world major events and locally based events. Tourism takes various forms and contents depending on the motive driving it. An analysis of the tourism industry in Buckingham zones of London shows that its major source markets are the European and American markets. Various methods used to enhance tourism include creating awareness, strengthening the infrastructural base, widening the number of attractions and sponsoring world events. The factor that may affect tourism industry in Buckingham region includes technological developments such as the adoption of information technology. They also include social factors such as rising terrorism threats and environmental factors associated with climate changes. Therefore, the paper has provided a comprehensive analysis of the role of attractions in destinations in various regions of Buckingham.
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