Genetics and Genomics
The increased complexity of diseases in modern times has necessitated the use of new diagnostic tests. Genetic is the field of medical science that studies the genetic makeup of human beings and animal. The knowledge gained in the field has had a profound impact on the field of medicine.
Information is very vital towards the advancement in the health and disease control in the world. Genome information on the other hand involves genome wide association studies, genome sequencing, gene expression and epigenetics. Genome research is extremely important clinical testing and assessment currently. The genome studies are also helpful in understanding the pathos physiology of a number of health conditions. Both genome and genetic study have help in clinical treatment, prediction, testing and diagnosis of serious health conditions. Nurses in the United States and across the globe are best suited to apply to use genetics and genome in the health care systems. Their position in the health care systems helps make a great contribution to genetic with the help of other health care providers in the system.
The nurses are the most trusted individual in the society in the healthcare system. The trust people have on nurses makes them give private information regarding their family history. The information is vital in the genetic and genome research and helps a lot in quick discovery of the disease an individual has. Furthermore genome and genetics information tend to be associated with the environment and as result nurses are in a better position to access the situation as they are close to the environmental conditions of most patient. The genetic and genome technology will keep increasing if nurses are more involved in the research (Calzone, Cashion, Feetham, Jenkins, Prows, Williams, & Wung, 2010).
Nurses have to be competent in their work always to obtain the necessary information from the patients. The nurses have to make sure they extract information about the patient genetics. Moreover, they have to obtain the information on the patient relationships and access all the risk factors. After they have obtained the necessary information nurses should make sure that, they give the patient a feedback on their genetic and genome conditions. If the patient risk factor is high, they should advise them on the best cause of action to take. For instance, they can refer the patient to a better health facility. By so doing nurses can lead to a significant reduction in the health conditions of most people.
According to promoting Children’s Health through understanding of genetics and genomics article, the authors illustrate how the knowledge gained in the study of the human genome has improved delivery of holistic healthcare. Their article focuses on how knowledge in genetics has helped to improve pathology by predicting chronic diseases. They claim that since nurses are in direct contact with the patients they can gather substantial genetic information regarding a patient. A case in point they tell their account on how a nurse saved a man’s life and instigated research on sudden cardiac arrest that causes up to a quarter million deaths annually in the country. The cardiovascular advanced practice nurse (APN) learned of how the patient’s family history of heart attacks while performing a cardiac echocardiogram, which she shared with the cardiologists. The APN contributed to a research where several generations of the patients participated. The research helped identify the gene and analyze how the disease mutated. The main theme of the article is that nurses are the best positioned to collect data for genomics since they have values and skills that enables them to convince patients to participate in the research (Kenner, Gall, & Bryant, 2005).
Genetics continue to advance treatment on a daily bases. With the current dynamics in technology, it is vital that the field of health care also follows suite. Genome research is today introducing more advances testing, diagnostic and treatment procedures that leave the patient satisfied. The use of technology has helped store information about patients and therefore the paramedics can easily access the information of the immobilized patients. Some of the patients that come or are brought under emergency conditions are hard to treat. However, with the current digital system in place patient’s information can be accessed and the doctors can attend to the patients with enough information without necessary reaching out to the family. This therefore, has been a major step in observing professionalism and avoiding misdiagnosis (Conley, Biesecker, Gonsalves, Merkle, Kirk, & Aouizerat, 2013).
Genomics has profound impact on the all aspects of the patient’s life. The findings of the genomic research if negative may cause psychological problems to the family due to the feeling of despondency. Health professionals have an ethical duty to prevent harm or avoid seriously jeopardizing the health of others as well as uphold the patients need for confidentiality ((“Fact Sheet 19 | ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN GENETICS AND GENOMICS”, 2016)).
Nurses must ensure that they cancel their patients on the implication of genetic tests and obtain their consent. This is particularly important as clinics and laboratory is obligated to report these tests so that Center for Disease Control can monitor how diseases are mutating. Besides, the findings of these tests might render the patient unqualified in certain professions or insurance cover. Therefore the nurse, in the course of her work, faces challenging dilemma to determine the genomic medical tests will be in the best interest of the patient or not. Fortunately, the professional values and morals instilled in nurses through various training makes them the best qualified in the medical field to ethically apply genomics and improve quality, holistic healthcare (Badzek, Henaghan, Turner, & Monsen,2013).
Fact Sheet 19 | ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN GENETICS AND GENOMICS. (2016). Genetics.edu.au. Retrieved 20 September 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au/Publications-and-Resources/Genetics-Fact-Sheets/FactSheetELSI
Badzek, L., Henaghan, M., Turner, M., & Monsen, R. (2013). Ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomics into health care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(1), 15-24.
Calzone, K. A., Cashion, A., Feetham, S., Jenkins, J., Prows, C. A., Williams, J. K., & Wung, S. F. (2010). Nurses transforming health care using genetics and genomics. Nursing outlook, 58(1), 26.
Conley, Y. P., Biesecker, L. G., Gonsalves, S., Merkle, C. J., Kirk, M., & Aouizerat, B. E. (2013). Current and emerging technology approaches in genomics. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(1), 5-14
Kenner, C., Gallo, A. M., & Bryant, K. D. (2005). Promoting children’s health through understanding of genetics and genomics. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(4), 308-314.