Dementia is a cognitive brain disorder that results in a changed personality and failing memory. In the last 10 years, there has been increasing concern regarding the effects of dementia care in terms of ethnic, cultural, and racial variations. Accordingly, the older adult population is becoming more prone to chronic illness continues to have adverse effects on them. The amount of studies being conducted today on cultural differences in dementia caregiving illustrates the increased interest in the subject. According to Van et al. (2018), the number of people affected by neurodegenerative dementia is rapidly increasing, as populations age around the globe. There are various perspectives through with dementia is being viewed including socio-cultural, scientific, or anthropological. This study explores how social and cultural experiences impact expressions of dementia, behavior change techniques, and the risk factors involved when dealing with dementia patients.
Over 35.6 million people are diagnosed with dementia globally. Danat et al. (2019) noted that this number could double in 20 years. Further, as stated by Chapko et al. (2018) and Evripidou, Charalambous, Middleton, & Papastavrou (2018), it is commonly believed in various societies across the world that supernatural factors cause dementia. Recently, however, neuroscientific and psychiatric studies have taken precedence. Dealing with immigrant dementia patients is, however, a major challenge facing medical professionals. Culture and ethnicity are two main factors influencing dementia in aging adults. Hence, different societies have different cultural frames of interpretation of aging and dementia, with some involving supernatural elements that structure how individuals address emotional and mental issues. Therefore, culture-based conceptions may also influence individual perceptions because of the intra-inter ethnic diversity across populations.
According to Van et al. (2018), there is a correlation between the majority of dementia patients and ethnocultural identities. For example, African-Americans tend to underutilize mental health services because of cultural mistrust. Culture-based conceptions and differences among patients with dementia portray different patterns in using medical assistance. Studies conducted by Dewing and Dijk (2016) and Chapko et al. (2018) in Europe found that the Germans had less access to seeking care for mental health compared to the Spanish. Therefore, multi-ethnic variations exist in the conceptualization of dementia in various parts of the world. African-American caregivers, for example, who have experienced difficulties in their lives may exhibit symptoms of dementia. The socio-cultural belief of an older-adult immigrant from Brazil patient was analyzed. In their ancestral home, they believe that the illness is caused by supernatural forces. Therefore, this belief makes it difficult for the patient to fully understand his condition.
It is also important that patients follow the right prescription and medical advice and make the necessary lifestyle changes to ensure better health outcomes. Hence, policymakers have included diverse approaches to increase patient activation and participation as patients are crucial in determining health outcomes (Spears, 2018). A significant approach that is known to influence care outcomes for patients with dementia is ‘patient activation.’ Patient activation is an approach that defines the skills of taking sufficient care of the patient’s health, healthcare facilities, knowledge, and confidence (Dewing & Dijk, 2016). It is a procedure that enables the patients to self-actualize the medication process and ensure that they help the clinicians by accurately conveying how they feel. However, there is little information regarding how patient activation levels can be increased despite the increasing number of studies that have demonstrated the positive effect of patient activation on health outcomes. The best technique that would work for my patient is ‘patient Activation.’ Patient activation therapy would be the best for this patient because he does not fully understand the impact of self-activation on health outcomes.
Clinicians can adopt various approaches such as patient empowerment, patient education,’ and motivational therapy to increase self-activation (Danat et al., 2019). Moreover, it has been noted that health outcomes increase significantly in institutions implementing motivational therapy, interviews, self-management behaviors, and other communication-based approaches known to be more effective in enhancing improvement inpatient. In addition, it is critical for clinicians to behave morally when dealing with dementia patients as it can help them in better understanding their situation and adhering to the treatment (Evripidou, Charalambous, Middleton, & Papastavrou, 2018). Higher self-management standards are also associated with the patient’s support of the chronic care model. As patient activation is known to increase the level of self-management and patient outcomes, it can be regarded as the best technique for most patients.
Some of the risk factors that can increase the levels of dementia in this patient include loss of hearing and diabetes. As cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent form of dementia, optimizing cardiovascular health is essential to prevent vascular events such as stroke. Optimizing cardiovascular health is important for reducing cognitive decline and maintaining brain health (Chatterjee, 2016). For this end, blood pressure control measures, physical activity, and consuming fruits, nuts, and vegetables are important.
Diabetes is another factor in the patient that increases the risk of dementia in the patient. It has also been identified as the most significant risk factor. Therefore, older adults with diabetes have higher rates of decline in mental function than their non-diabetic peers. According to Thomson, Auduong, Miller, and Gurgel (2017), keeping blood sugar under control in the long run through exercise and diet as well as taking the right medication for diabetes is crucial for maintaining brain health. However, as sugar fuels, the brain, overtreatment of diabetes can damage also the brain and the patient’s overall health. Overtreatment of high blood pressure is thus associated with a decline in cognitive ability in older adults, thereby increasing the risk of dementia (Spears, 2018). As diabetes can also cause mood changes and cognition difficulties, it is also associated with an increased risk of dementia.
Dementia is more prevalent in older adults, and there has been no evidence of a known cause of the illness or of the damage it causes to the brain cells. However, causes of dementia include dementia brain tumor, head injuries, or continuous brain cell death. It is not a single illness but is characterized by a combination of a decline in cognitive functions such as memory impairment, forgetfulness, loss of communication, and mental coordination. The symptoms of dementia may vary from one patient to another and include but are not limited to loss of memory, communication problems, difficulty in executing familiar tasks such as driving, disorientation, mood changes, and personality changes. Dementia progresses from mild cognitive impairment to mild dementia, to moderate dementia, and then severe dementia. Although there is no known cure for dementia as brain cell death is irreversible, it can be managed and prevented by halting the brain tissue damage using various drugs such as Rivastigmine Exelon and Donepezil. Dementia is a cognitive disorder with a high prevalence among older adults because of their predisposition to chronic illnesses because of their age. However, it may also affect younger adults who have been subjected to other mental cognitive disorders or have had a long history of drug abuse.
Chapko, D., McCormack, R., Black, C., Staff, R., & Murray, A. (2018). Life-course determinants of cognitive reserve (CR) in cognitive aging and dementia–a systematic literature review. Aging &Mental Health, 22(8), 921–932.
Chatterjee, S., Peters, S. A., Woodward, M., Arango, S. M., Batty, G. D., Beckett, N., … & Hassing, L. B. (2016). Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for dementia in women compared with men: a pooled analysis of 2.3 million people comprising more than 100,000 cases of dementia. Diabetes care, 39(2), 300–307.
Danat, I. M., Clifford, A., Partridge, M., Zhou, W., Bakre, A. T., Chen, A., … & Anstey, K. J. (2019). Impacts of Overweight and Obesity in Older Age on the Risk of Dementia: A Systematic Literature Review and a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, (Preprint), 1–13.
Dewing, J., & Dijk, S. (2016). What is the current state of care for older people with dementia in general hospitals? A literature review. Dementia, 15(1), 106–124.
Evripidou, M., Charalambous, A., Middleton, N., & Papastavrou, E. (2018). Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes about dementia care: Systematic literature review. Perspectives in psychiatric care.
Spears, M. M. (2018). Nonpharmacological Behavioral Interventions for Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Literature Review (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).
Thomson, R. S., Auduong, P., Miller, A. T., &Gurgel, R. K. (2017). Hearing loss as a risk factor for dementia: a systematic review. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, 2(2), 69–79.
Van Santen, J., Dröes, R. M., Holstege, M., Henkemans, O. B., Van Rijn, A., De Vries, R., … & Meiland, F. (2018). Effects of exergaming in people with dementia: results of a systematic literature review. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, (Preprint), 1–20.
[A1]Note that though I have edited this paper for language and grammar, there is one major point to be clarified. As I specified in my previous comment, the instructions require certain specific answers in terms of treating your patient with dementia. However, your paper makes no mention of this.
Please clarify with the client and revise accordingly.
[A2]This sentence is difficult to understand. What do you mean by older adult population is becoming diverse? Please clarify.