Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Comparison of nursing education systems: China and Poland

Comparison of nursing education Systems: China and Poland


I am comparing the nursing education system of China and Poland which have improved to bring a very successful nursing education system. I was interested in the two countries because of success that have been achieved in their nursing education system which make people in other countries seek  further studies in nursing education in the countries. My expectation of the nursing education system in the countries before I read the articles is that which has developed from vocational to university training. The essay analyzes and makes comparisons of developments that have occurred in the nursing education system in China and Poland.

Political history and development of nursing education

The political environment of a certain country can have major impacts on the development of a country. The political history of China and Poland had major impacts on the development of their education systems.

China: Development of the nursing education system of the country is connected with the contextual environment of China, for instance, the political setting. Civil unrest which occurred in 1949 had an impact on nursing education system because many people were wounded thus need for basic nursing education like dressing of wounds. There were no formal nursing training programs until Western initiatives created the system and brought about changes in the Chinese nursing education system.

Poland: The political environment significantly impacted on the development of nursing education system in Poland.  The Second World War interfered with the nursing education as Poland endured military occupation during the time. After the Second World War, the economic conditions in Poland were terrible, and these conditions resulted in much epidemic disease and the need for health care. The country was faced with serious health problems, and thus, education of nurses was re-established under very difficult political, social and economic conditions. Polish nurses placed their representatives who were able to influence decisions on many issues related to health care at the levels of healthcare management.

Development of nursing education system was affected by the political environment in both countries. The First World War interfered with the first nursing school and had an impact on the development of nursing training programs for Poland. Civil unrest which occurred in 1949 with the formation of government affected the growth of Chinese nursing education.

 Development of nursing education

The development of nursing education systems both china and Poland was influenced by various factors. Nursing practice and education in China and Poland have made progress but also encountered many challenges in the past few decades.

China: The first school of training nurses was started in Fuzhou in 1888, in subsequent years other schools were build in different cities in China. The Chinese nursing education was vocation until the government of China started establishing its nursing schools (Wong & Zhao, 2012). Health schools became independent institutions for training nurses in 1950. Nursing education remained at the vocational level, and nurses were trained in health schools until 1979 when Nanjing Medical University established the first university diploma program in collaboration with Nanjing General Hospital. Post graduate nursing started in 1990 when Beijing medical university started offering masters in 1992. The first doctoral program in nursing was started in 2004 when Military Medical University and Central South University commenced offering the courses.

Traditional Chinese medicine is also an asset in the country; nursing schools specializing in TCM together with western medicine were introduced in 1958. The first baccalaureate program in TCM was started in 1999, and we currently have twenty-four baccalaureate TCM nursing programs in China. Traditional Chinese medicine has been incorporated into the nursing curriculum of the country, for instance, many hospitals in China offer treatment both in western medicine and TCM for some patient groups. Students who take nursing as a profession in China must pass the NNQE before they are qualified to practice nursing regardless of their level of training. An act which provides legal regulation and enforcement for nursing practice which specifies the definition of nursing and the rights of nurses was introduced.  In line with the enhancement of education quality, there is also an urgent need to raise the quantity of nurses in China. At present, there are many efforts to change the nursing curriculum from a medical-oriented to a nursing-oriented model.

Poland: The first school of nursing was established in Krakow in 1911 and existed until 1914 when world war one broke out. The Polish Nursing Association of Professional Nurses was established in 1925 through the initiative of leaders in various nursing institutions. One year later, the first nursing section in the Ministry of Health was created by the Government and was tasked with coordinating of the activities in Poland that were connected with nursing education. In 1935, the parliament of Poland passed an act on nursing which defined nursing practice and the manner, curriculum, and duration of nursing education. During the 1970s, university-based nursing programs were introduced for the first time in Poland (Sztembis, 2006. The independent nursing section was reactivated and transformed into the department of nursing in 1990.

Nursing training was informal in both countries before it started being offered as a formal program in education institutions. We had no formal training programs for nurses in China until the coming of the missionaries; the Chinese health system was premised on traditional medicine. In, Poland there were no formal nursing training programs until 1911 when the first nursing school was established in Krakow. Nursing education was regarded as vocational in both countries until the government started to open nursing schools

Government and nursing Organization influencing nursing

Governments and other organizations played a crucial role in the development of the nursing education system in both China and Poland. Organizations like Polish Nursing Association of Professional Nurses association, Rockefeller Foundation and The National Nurse Qualification Examination played a vital role in the development of nursing education in the countries.

Poland: The Government and organizations which represented the interests of nurses played a role in the growth of nursing education system in Poland. The Polish Nursing Association of Professional Nurses played a crucial role in the development of nursing education because it allowed members to access international nursing heritage and come up with new nursing ideas. Rockefeller Foundation assisted with the establishment of programs and short courses preparing women for the care of patients.

China: The government and nursing organizations also played a role nursing education system in China. The National Nurse Qualification Examination in China helped in ensuring quality in the development of nursing because students were assessed before they were allowed to practice. The government established nursing schools for training nurses and provided all the facilities needed to practice nursing.

The current nursing education system

The current nursing education system in both countries is hospital based whereby institutions of learning partner with hospitals thus providing nursing students with the best learning environment. Nursing education is offered in universities at various levels starting from degree to doctoral programs.

China: Currently, the country has an advanced education system of training nurses. Nursing is offered in higher institutions of learning at various levels. We have degree, masters and doctoral programs in nursing education in China. Most of the institutions that offer nursing education are hospital-based and thus students are taught how to nurse patients in a hospital environment.

Poland: Training of nurses in both Poland is hospital based whereby institutions of higher learning partner with hospitals. The country offers nursing programs at various levels starting for degree programs to doctoral programs. Post graduate nursing programs are offered in various universities in both Poland and China.

Education training programs for nurses in both Poland and China are similar to the US, for instance, where degree, masters, and doctoral programs are offered in various universities in all the three countries. The number of practice-focused doctoral programs referred to as a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs, has increased more dramatically in the recent past in USA (Smeltzer, Sharts-Hopko, Cantrell, Heverly, Nthenge, & Jenkinson, 2015).


Nursing education has gone through changes in both countries and has had an impact health care system of both China and Poland. What surprises me are how similarities have been achieved in nurse training programs in both countries despite the diverse backgrounds in nursing education. Nursing training has developed from informal to formal in both countries just like it was in the USA. The current education system of nursing in both countries is similar with that of the USA whereby degree, masters, and doctoral nursing programs are offered.


Smeltzer, S. Sharts-Hopko, N Cantrell, M. Heverly, A., Nthenge, S., & Jenkinson, A. (2015). A Profile of U.S. Nursing Faculty in Research- and Practice-Focused Doctoral Education. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(2), 178-185

Sztembis, B. (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities. International Nursing Review, 53(2), 102-109.

Wong, F., & Zhao, Y. (2012). Nursing education in China: past, present and future. Journal of Nursing Management, 20(1), 38-44.