Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance


When bacteria or viruses attack the body, the immune system is overwhelmed thus weakening the system from effectively fighting the invading bugs. In most instances, antibiotics are introduced to boost up the defense against invaders until a time when the immune system is restored to fight off the remaining bacteria (CDC, 2018). However, over time there are chances where the bacteria become resistant or immune to antibiotics. The resistance comes from the bacteria coming up with various ways to counter the antibiotics. One of the adaptation mechanisms is by genetic mutation, which is rare with each mutation yielding a different resistance outcome. Some mutations produce chemicals that inactivate the antibiotics or at other times mutations involve elimination of the targeted cells.


Instances when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, it poses a threat to both humans and animals. It increases the likelihood of getting sick for a long duration, given that the body’s immune system is incapable of fully combating the infection (CDC, 2018). Additionally, resistance to antibiotics would mean a new strain of disease that is a threat due to no immediate cure. At times, it may lead to hospitalization in cases of humans and even death.


Each time antibiotics are introduced into the body, sensitive bacteria are killed, but the more resistant ones are left to multiply. Improper use of antibiotics is the primary cause of drug-resistant bacteria. The rate of antibiotic use has been integrated worldwide in all fields including agriculture. It is time to reduce the use of antibiotics both in human and animals and rather focus on alternative measures to combat bacteria. According to Berendonk (Berendonk et al., 2015), there are alternative treatments in animals including vaccines and organic acids that exhibit a higher performance rate with minimal blowbacks. Antibiotic use should be used at instances when there is no alternative, although such instances are minimal.


Berendonk, T. U., Manaia, C. M., Merlin, C., Fatta-Kassinos, D., Cytryn, E., Walsh, F., & Kreuzinger, N. (2015). Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13(5), 310. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3439 Retrieved from:

CDC. (2018, 01 26). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 05 27, 2018, from Antibiotic Resistance: