Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Zika Virus

Zika Virus

A bite from an infected mosquito, mainly from the Aedes species is known to be the main transmitter of the Zika virus (Carlson, Dougherty & Getz, 2016). This paper links the disease to infectious causation because it can be passed directly or indirectly from one individual to another. The organisms that spread the virus are very vigorous and bite any time of the day, be it night or daytime as they live both indoors and outdoors near people. The spread of the virus can also occur from an expectant mother to her fetus or in the period of birth, where it can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly (Paixão et al., 2016). However, mothers are advised to keep breastfeeding even in high-risk areas as there are no reports linking Zika virus transmission through that medium.

Sexual transmission is another route the Zika virus can find its way into the human body, and it can occur even if the infected person does not show any symptoms. It can also be transmitted is through a blood transfusion as the many instances revealed in Brazil. Additionally, blood donors have also been found to have the virus; for instance, 2.8 percent of blood donors when there was an outbreak in the French Polynesia (McKay, 2016). Laboratory exposure has also been reported to provide ideal conditions for transmission as there has been a case in June 2016 the United States. People who travel can also spread the virus because once infected; mosquitoes can bite them, acquire the virus and transmit it by biting other people. The virus is not limited to one region as there are multiple cases that have been reported in the Americas, Oceania/ Pacific Islands, Cape Verde, and Singapore.


Carlson, C. J., Dougherty, E. R., & Getz, W. (2016). An Ecological Assessment of the Pandemic Threat of Zika Virus. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases10(8), 1-18. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004968

McKay, B. (2016, Mar 15). Child born to woman with zika virus has 1 in 100 risk of microcephaly; birth-defect estimate based on study during 2013-14 outbreak in french polynesia. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from

Paixão, E.,S., Barreto, F., Teixeira, M. d. G., Costa, M. d. C. N., & Rodrigues, L. C. (2016). History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: A systematic review. American Journal of Public Health, 106(4), 606-612. doi: