Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework Model and how it applies to Chronic Disease

Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework Model and how it applies to Chronic Disease

Chronic trajectory framework is mostly used for people suffering from threatening illness to determine or answer the questions mostly asked to verify their fate. The questions are to do with their life expectancy and the possible changes to be experienced in their lives. Application of these trajectories offers a broad timeframe, likely patterns and needs, and reciprocal actions with social and health services, which could be planned in details towards death. These frameworks could be of great importance to clinicians in planning and offering proper care that incorporate active and alleviative management. Similarly, to patients and their caregivers acquirer appropriate understanding of illness trajectories, they would be in a better position to take care of their situations hence empowering them when coping with arising demands of the chronic  illness (Moss-Morris, 2013).

There are different trajectories models for dissimilar chronic illness affecting patients. The distinct illness trajectory described for people suffering from dementia that results from Alzheimer’s disease is known as trajectory with gradual decline. Alzheimer disease is most common among the aged people though it can be caused by brain damages at an early age of an individual causing its failure. The victims of this illness lose short memories especially for the events that have happened recently and progressively becoming unable to take care of themselves (Moss-Morris, 2013).

The courses of chronic conditions are different and keep on changing overtime. In case of prolonged dwindling trajectory, it starts slowly and can be identified through early symptoms like a victim experiencing challenges when remembering recent events. The condition worsens over time, and as the illness advances to higher levels, it reveals different symptoms like language problems, mood swings, disorientations, de-motivations and behavioral issues. The patient may start withdrawing from people during the declining conditions and gradually loses their bodily functioning leading to loss of life. Alzheimer disease can also result from posttraumatic stress disorders and traumatic brain injury especially if the victim had experienced head injuries (Rosenberg et al., 2012).

Technology applied to cure chronic illness is always complex, for instance, in case of Alzheimer’s disease, the use of ultra sound is the emerging technology but its feasibility is questionable due to its initial applications and testing using a mouse models. Additionally, environmental exposure to drugs that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations has been advocated for treating Alzheimer disease popularly referred to as anesthetics. The challenge in studying the chronic illness in human beings, which is related to age, is that anesthetics are administered after conducting surgery hence necessitating focusing on animal model. Drugs prescribed by physicians bring about unpleasant side effects like vomiting, fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhea, weight loss, nausea, and insomnia. These treatments and the illness itself affect day-to-day performance of individuals due to discomforts caused by side effects and declining body functioning Biographical needs such as levels of income, social status type of career can affect the choices used to manage chronic illness and its course. Aged people are highly probable to be affected. The level of activities also affects the management choices since the lees active people have high chances of suffering from Alzheimer disease (Rosenberg et al., 2012).

The course of Alzheimer’s disease has notably changed downwards since the continuous diagnosis and caregivers’ services can delay the mild cognitive symptoms, hence delaying manifestations of dementia. Biographical needs changes as the symptoms advance more cognitive levels. Currently, there is no concrete evidence to support the prevention and curability of Alzheimer disease, although people’s lifestyles and diet plays a major role in delaying dementia. Intellectual daily activities such as reading, completing puzzles social interactions have reflected a recommendable probability of reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease, hence minimizing the chances of ending to death (Rosenberg et al., 2012).

References

Moss-Morris, R. (2013). Adjusting to chronic illness: Time for a unified theory. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18(4), 681-686. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12072

Rosenberg, P. B., Mielke, M. M., Han, D., Leoutsakos, J. S., Lyketsos, C. G., Rabins, P. V., & … Tschanz, J. T. (2012). The association of psychotropic medication use with the cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric trajectory of Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(12), 1248-1257. doi:10.1002/gps.3769