Sample Nursing Annotated Bibliography Paper on Diabetes and Foot Care

Diabetes and Foot care

Introduction

There are various ethical issues that surface conducting research. The most common ethical issues relate to the confidentiality and the privacy of the data collected as well as consent of the participant to participate in the study. To maintain ethics when conducting research, the researcher should ensure that the data collected remain confidential and is only used for the research purpose. The researcher should also ensure that participant’s personal information is not disclosed to any unauthorized person to maintain their privacy. Finally, the researcher should ensure that participants consent to participate in the study. Obtaining consent involves seeking  permission from the participant to include their data in the study. Participant should sign an informed consent form that assures that the data collected will be confidential, and their privacy will be protected. The paper analysis four articles of studies conducted to evaluate the foot care awareness and importance to diabetic patients.

According to the studies, majority of diabetes patients have foot complications. Some of these complications include foot ulcers, Charcot foot and amputation.  Abu-Qamar (2014) points out thatmost of foot complications are preventable if a diabetic patient ensures good foot care. Nevertheless, there is little awareness of foot care and very few patients take care of their feet. There are several benefits associated with foot care. First foot care ensures that the patient stays active since it reduces foot complication that can affect his or her mobility. Foot care also helps in detection of early sign of other diseases such as arthritis and nerve damage. It also increases blood circulation in the feet hence reduce the risk of amputation or feet ulcer. Some foot care such as trimming nails helps to reduce the risk of injury for diabetic patients (Woodbury, Botros, Kuhnke, & Greene, 2013).

Woodbury, M. G., Botros, M., Kuhnke, J. L., & Greene, J. (2013). Evaluation of a peerled selfmanagement education program PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You. International Wound Journal, 10(6), 703-711.

The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of peer education program (PEP) on diabetes referred to as ‘Diabetes, Health Feet and You’ to reduce foot complication that are associated with diabetes. It also aimed to determine whether the program can be implementing in public health throughout Canada and other parts of the world. PEP program involved workshops that were conducted by volunteers who included peer leaders and heath care professionals (Woodbury, et al., 2013). Curriculum for the workshop was prepared based on self-management guidelines on diabetes foot care. Most of the information was included in the web portal to be used in the education program (Woodbury, et al., 2013).

Participants of the research were selected from 10 Canadian provinces. Data collection involved asking community participants to fill pre and post knowledge statement to determine if the knowledge gained in the workshops was helpful in improving cancer awareness. Some data were also collected using telephone interviews. The findings indicated that PEP program was effective since about 97% of the participants reported increased diabetes awareness and they had adopted specific self-management practices to reduce foot complication resulting from diabetes (Woodbury, et al., 2013). The research will be helpful to nurses working in public health by helping them use PEP to increase diabetes awareness to reduce foot complications.

To maintain ethic in the study, the researcher obtained informed consent from the participants. The research was also approved by Research Ethics Board after meeting all ethical requirements (Woodbury, et al., 2013). Privacy to information was maintained by failing to disclose personal information. It was important to safeguard participant’s rights such as privacy and confidentiality of their information to comply with the ethical guidelines of the research, obtaining informed consent helped in assuring the participant that their information given will be confidential, and their privacy will be protected.

Abu-Qamar, M. Z. (2014). Knowledge and practice of foot self-care among Jordanians with diabetes: An interview-based survey study. Journal of wound care, 23(5), 247-254.

The article analysis a study conducted to evaluate knowledge and practice of foot care for patients with diabetes in Jordan. The study setting involved nine healthcare institutions in five Jordan governorates. Data collection was done through the use of questionnaires that were developed in the Arabic language. The participants of the study were selected from all adult patients seeking diabetes treatment from the selected health care. The data collected was then analyzed using statistic data analysis techniques to give findings of the study. The study indicated that there is a huge difference between foot care knowledge and practice. Most participants have knowledge on foot care, but most of them do not practice regular foot self-care.  The study recommended the need to increase awareness of foot self-care among patient with diabetes to improve the level of self-care (Abu-Qamar, 2014).

Ethical matters were addressed during the research. When recruiting the participants, nurses introduced patients to the researcher, and only the patients who showed interest were considered for the study. Before interviewing the selected research participants, consent was obtained through verbal and written communication form indicating the purpose of the study. The participants were assured that the study was voluntary and participating or declining would not affect their care. They were also assured confidentiality of the data by indicating that the data will only be used for the purpose of the research, and the data will only be accessed by the researchers. The purpose of obtained informed consent was to protect the participant’s right to privacy. The research was approved by four ethical committees after meeting all ethical requirements. The importance of the research to the nurses is that it increased awareness on foot self-care among patients with diabetes hence nurses can evaluate the self-care program (Abu-Qamar, 2014).

Nemcová, J., & Hlinková, E. (2014). The efficacy of diabetic foot care education. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(5-6), 877-882.

The article discusses a research that was conducted to survey the effectiveness of diabetes foot care education. The study was based on the concept that diabetic education can change the behavior of diabetes patients hence contributing to the prevention of foot ulcer and amputation. the study involved conduction verbal and written diabetic educating programs to patients with diabetes. The   researcher collected data before and after education program. According to (Nemcová, & Hlinková, 2014), data prior to education were collected using structured assessment. The education program was based on data collected prior to the education.  Participants were chosen from patients with diabetes who regularly visited major hospitals. The study indicated that diabetic education increased diabetes awareness and creates the willingness and motivation to learn which factors contributes to diabetic foot care self-management (Nemcová, & Hlinková, 2014).

The researcher obtained signed consent from the patients before conducting the study. When obtaining consent patients were assured confidentiality of the information and that their privacy would be protected. The study was also approved by Human Ethical Review Committee after meeting the entire ethical requirement. The importance of the signed consent was to protect patient’s right to privacy.

Alm Roijer, C., Annersten Gershater, M., & Pilhammar, E. (2013). Prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes in home nursing: a qualitative interview study.

The article discusses a study that was conducted to evaluate the work of registered nurse in preventing foot ulcers for patients with diabetes in the home nursing setting. Interviews were used in data collection. The participants consisted of registered nurse experienced in working at home nursing for more than two years. The research showed that registered nurses worked through education, coordination, leadership and evaluation to prevent foot ulcers in diabetic patients (Alm Roijer, Annersten Gershater, & Pilhammar, 2013).

Ethical issues were observed during the study. Consent of the participants was obtained through emails that were sent to registered nurses requesting their participation. Only those who volunteered to participate were involved in the study. The importance of obtaining informed consent was to ensure that participation was voluntary and assuring participants that the information given will be confidential, and their privacy will be protected. The study also sought approval from the regional ethical board to avoid ethical issues that may arise in the course of the study.

References

Abu-Qamar, M. Z. (2014). Knowledge and practice of foot self-care among Jordanians with diabetes: An interview-based survey study. Journal of wound care, 23(5), 247-254.

Alm Roijer, C., Annersten Gershater, M., & Pilhammar, E. (2013). Prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes in home nursing: a qualitative interview study.

Nemcová, J., & Hlinková, E. (2014). The efficacy of diabetic foot care education. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(5-6), 877-882.

Woodbury, M. G., Botros, M., Kuhnke, J. L., & Greene, J. (2013). Evaluation of a peer‐led self‐management education programme PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You. International Wound Journal, 10(6), 703-711.