Sample Management Research Paper on Apply Information Technology in Life

Apply Information Technology to Life


Information technology is one of the most important technological innovations of the 21st century. Without it, the concept of globalization would not be possible. Since its advent, it has permeated different sectors of the society, such as school and businesses, making them depended on it to a large extent. It has saved students the trouble of perusing thousands of pages of books in search of information, with the one-touch or the click of a button. Advertisers have reaped plentifully from the platforms of information technology that have slashed advertising costs by a  significant margin, which has aided them to market the products and services more for less than they did before. Institutions in society ought to take advantage of the system, to stay afloat in a world in which the fittest survive.




The 21st century is known as the ‘digital age.’ Since the turn of the century, the progress made in the Information technology field has changed how societies think as well as act. Unlike any other time in human history, currently, computer technology is engraved in almost all professions and environments. The use of digital gadgets during the 19th and 20th centuries was for organizational use. However, the 21st century has seen computerized gadgets; particularly smart devices become popular personal computers that have enhanced civilization and global diversity. Additionally, the internet has aided in developing a digital society. Social networks such as Facebook and tweeter as well as search engines, for instance, Google, have become vehicles to a new civilization. As indicated by Tomei (2008) life has become less manual than before because Information technology is applied in daily undertakings.         


Marshall McLuhan once indicted that “The world is fast becoming a global village” (Malone, Laubacher, & Scott, 2015, P.23). Currently, this premise has become a reality owing to the development of social media, increased internet used and smart devices such as smartphones and electronic tablets. The thirst for knowledge has been the driving force for the radical changes in information technology in the global perspective. According to Berleur (2004), the digital age is the “third industrial revolution,” a term set to describe how individuals have been able to tap into the globalization phenomenon on an ‘industrial sized” level.

Understanding Information Technology

Information technology is a term that embraces all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange and use information in its various forms, for example, business data, voice conversation, images (still or motion pictures), multimedia presentations, as well as newer forms such as three- dimensional data. According to Chandra, (2003), the term is convenient for including both telephony and computer technology in the same word. According to Jin and Lin (2012), Information Technology is closely attached to the society today because half of the efforts that have been noticed to make daily lives more convenient are entirely being made by technological gadgets and*8 the internet. For instance, the innovation of the smartphone allowed individuals unprecedented access to the internet. It enhanced access to the internet since it made information available at the touch of a button. 

Information Technology in Communication

The most practical side of having Information technology in the palm of one’s hand is the reduced consumption of time as well as improved quality of life. For example, due to mobile and smartphones, the internet, computers with web cameras, it is easier and more proficient to communicate with a family member or other peers from work or social groups from virtually anywhere in the world than when using other means of communication, such as letters. One of the key forms of communication in the digital era is the mobile phone. According to research conducted in 1999 by Chandra, (2013), only 15% of the US community used the mobile phone between the 1989 and 1999. Currently, it is estimated that that 90% of the US population owns a mobile phone and 85% of this population uses smartphones. According to Tomei (2008), the introduction of Information technology advances led to the development of the ‘present day’ smartphone. IBM developed the first smartphone ‘Simon’ in 1992. The phone was bulky and expensive, with a unit costing $1,100, despite its sophistication. For this reason, not many individuals owned the phone. Additionally, according to Malone, Laubacher, and Scott, 2015) a large section of the society did not understand its relevance in their daily lived, a factor that caused its poor sales.   Nevertheless, after the development and sale of the iPhone in 2007, the society was sold on the idea of the smartphone gadget being designed to suit the needs of the digital era. Currently, smartphones are the leading computerized gadget among people globally (Chandra, 2013). Currently, smartphones offer their users the ability to make both voice and video calls. According to Malone, Laubacher, and Scott, (2015), the ability to make video calls has revolutionized how the society communicates as the bonds between the individuals communicating are augmented. Research by MIT University indicated when individuals communicate with a family member or friend on video chat they are 45% more excited than on voice calls (Malone, Laubacher, & Scott, 2015).

Information technology advancements have aided in the development of social media platforms, which are currently ranked as the most popular modes of communication, replacing text messaging. Since the turn of the century, there has been a 75% increase in the use of the internet by the households, which means that, more currently, more people use the internet than ever before. According to a study conducted by Tomei (2008), 85% users of the internet are social media account owners. Undoubtedly, the platform has changed how the society thinks of more cultures, beliefs, and knowledge is shared among its users.

Figure 1: The number of smartphone users worldwide from 2014 to 2020 (in billions)


Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the number of smartphone users worldwide from 2014 to 2020 (in billions). From the figure, it is evident the number of users has been on the increase from 2014 to 2017. In 2014, the global population of smartphone users was only 1.57 billion while in 2017 the figure is at 2.32 billion. From the sustained trend, it is likely more people will be using smartphone users in the future, as more information technology is introduced to smart devices.

Information Technology in Education

Throughout the 19th and 20th century, education was exclusively through the spoken word. According to Berleur (2004), in the 19th-century, history and tradition were passed on from generation to the next in the form of stories. At the time, few individuals could read and write. Additionally, handwritten books were expensive, thus only afforded by the financially fortunate. Hence, the invention of the printing press and mass reproduction of books had a revolutionary impact on education, because they made it possible for schools and students to own and use textbooks. However, according to Tomei (2008), the advancements in IT far out weigh the significance of the printing press.

Figure 2: Changes in the Education System Brought About By Information Technology

Figure 1 represents the extent to which Information technology has changed the educational system.

IT in Student Life

Education is an astronomically important factor in life. Over the last decade, information technology has been introduced to the education system. IT or ICT became prevalent in the education sector in the 1980s particularly when the consumer market began to see an increase in the sale of microcomputers. As more microcomputers made their way into households so did software that aided in improving the learning experience. By the turn of the century, more user-friendly Personal Computers were developed that integrated educational inputs at different levels. According to a study conducted by Tomei (2008), an average student can improve his or her grades by about 25-35% through the technological tools that are currently in the markets. The increased proficiency is linked to two primary aspects of learning namely motivation and increased information recourse. Information technology devices such as Electronic tablets are sizable and have a variety of Android-powered applications that not only ease learning but also are fun for younger children. A study conducted by MIT University indicated that preschool children in the US showed higher motivation when using computer-based applications when studying than when studying in the traditional class set up. Vibrant colors, sounds, and animations attract the curiosity of a child hence allows them to learn significantly fast.

In the higher levels of learning, technology has aided in a wider resource base to the convenience of the students. According to Berleur (2004), students’ research in the 1980s and 1990s was primarily done going through pages of hard covered books in libraries. Unfortunately, the process was painstakingly slow and hence demanded significant patience since no single book contained conclusive information concerning research topic considering that research requires the exploration of different works. However, due to improved information technology techniques, a vast amount of digital books, research papers, and informative articles have provided students with the ability to search specific information through a plethora of information on command. Search engines have access to a multitude of databases that allow students to become more resourceful than before.  

IT Benefits to Teachers

In the 21st century, technology has allowed teachers to improve their teaching and assessment skills a factor that has allowed them to improve their standards of teaching. According to Malone, Laubacher, & Scott, (2015) teachers integrated technology into the curriculum, therefore, increasing students’ motivation. For example, the introduction of the Virtual Reality technology has allowed teachers to conduct experiments that are stored in a database that can be accessed by students at their time of need. According to the research conducted by MIT University, students usually displayed heightened curiosity and attentiveness when they watched videos via their VR devices. Thus the technology enhanced their learning experience (Malone, Laubacher, & Scott, 2015).

             Assessment has always typically been associated with teachers going through mountains of test paper and grading them according to a static marking scheme. However, with the introduction of digital assessment, tutors not only grade students but also understand their thought processes through arithmetic behavioral patterns. According to Chandra (2013), this offers tutors the ability to know the strengths, and consequently, they can develop closer and much more effective bonds with the students than they used to before the advent of the technology.  Doing so enhances students’ learning processes and motivates teachers.

Information Technology Advances in Healthcare

As the new millennium came close, the Committee on the Quality of Health Care in America, indicated its desire to offer improved health care to its clients. In 1998, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) set out to research ways to achieve an increased proficiency. In March 2001, the committee published a seminal report, in which it was concluded that the key to improving the country’s healthcare system would be the introduction of information and communication technology (IT) (Jin& Lin, 2012).Particularly, the report recommended the employment of IT to improve access to data as well as support evidence-based decision-making. Technology would be used to aid doctors in diagnosing patients and monitoring their progress throughout their recovery process, which would reduce cases of misdiagnosis and increase the chances of a quick recovery. The committee gave directions to the national commitment to develop an infrastructure that would include a national database that would aid in support of health care delivery, consumer health, quality measurement and improvement, public accountability, clinical and health services research and clinical education.

The reconditions presented by the committee were met by the end of 2005. Currently, the US healthcare dockets host one of the world’s most sophisticated informed database that isolates health hazards and offers proper first aid as well as curative options for not only doctors in hospitals but also paramedics who are usually first to a health crisis scene. Additionally, patients’ information can be accessed throughout the country from different states. According to Chandra, (2013), this allows doctors to have a clear picture of a patient’s medical history rather than ask the patient who may be incapacitated or inaccurate in presenting information.

The developments in IT through android technology have also seen the development of Wearable gadgets that have proven lifesaving particularly to patients suffering from heart illnesses. According to  Anderson (2010), these wearable devices have also aided diabetic patients in that they have reduced the mortality rate by approximately 25% over the last half a decade. Additionally, Dr. Shafi Ahmed developed the first Virtual Reality system that can be used to conduct surgeries in different regions of the world without moving. The system was put to the test in 2016 and conducted a successful surgery. According to Malone, Laubacher, and Scott(2015), such inventions have indicated the potential to save the lives of patients in remote regions.

IT in Business and Manufacturing

The business environment has considerably been influenced by the increase in IT developments, especially manufacturing and delivery. According to Berleur (2004), the internet has allowed clients to buy and request them for delivery on online purchases. The cases of customers buying products from one continent and requesting for paid deliveries have been on an increase as more companies venture into using the globalization phenomenon as a competitive advantage over their rivals. Additionally, IT developments have changed how corporations advertise their products. Tomei (2008), indicates that currently online advertising particularly through the use of social media platforms has been identified as prime practice. Additionally, research by  Chandra (2013) indicated that companies that develop online pages and have social media accounts make higher profits on sales than their rivals who do not use online marketing avenues.

One of the biggest challenges in the current era is the integration of consumer information and production. Corporate entities such as Apple Inc. and Samsung that constantly produce products that are based on consumer information remain successful; while others who are not conversant with such information have dropped in ratings, for example, Nokia. Jin and Lin (2012), indicate that there is a plethora of information that goes into product design, manufacture, and consumer needs considering the comments, analysis, and reviews of products. Information technology development has aided in the collection and arithmetic formulas that best provide a product that is competitive and profitable for particular organizations.

Information Technology in Security and Surveillance

The 21st century has seen the highest amount of conflicts globally because heightened radicalization has been witnessed due to social media access. Nevertheless, various Information Technology inputs have been developed to counter aggression and radicalization. For instance, airports are fed with regularly updated information that identifies individuals who pose a threat when flying. According to Baggett, Foster, & Simpkins (2017), major airports are equipped with facial recognizing software that identifies potential aggressors through a global database. Furthermore, security agencies such as the FBI, Homeland security, the CIA, Interpol and other security entities share information, which has aided in the capture of several significant threats and thus avoiding disaster.  


The 21st century is known as the ‘digital age.’ Undoubtedly,  the progress that has been made in the Information technology field have changed how societies think and act.  IT has also significantly impacted how people communicate. For instance, mobile and smartphones, the internet, as well as computers with web cameras have made it easier and more proficient in communicating with a family member or other peers from work or social groups from virtually anywhere in the world than other modes of communication. Additionally, IT has altered the education sector around the world. From the analysis conducted, students and teachers are the greatest education stockholder that are affected by IT advances of today. Students’ motivation and curiosity has been a key aspect of improved technology. Additionally, research material has become easier to find than before thus enhancing knowledge. For teachers, assessment has become more proficient in highlighting student skills. The developments in IT have been introduced into the healthcare system. It is essential to note the contribution of IT because it has aided in the development the support of health care delivery, consumer health, quality measurement and improvement, public accountability, clinical and health services research and clinical education. IT developments have highlighted changes in the business environment. Moreover, it has allowed corporations to have proficient information-gathering abilities that allow them to remain competitive in a highly combative market. Finally, the technological advancement is essential indicated in surveillance and security. Global databases have aided Airports in reducing risks on terrorism through upgraded facial recognition software. Additionally, security agencies such as the FBI, Homeland security, the CIA, Interpol as well as other global security entities share information that has aided in the capture of several significant threats avoiding disaster.


Anderson, J. (2010). ICT Transforming Education. Bangkok Thailand, 

Baggett, R. K., In Foster, C. S., & In Simpkins, B. K. (2017). Homeland security technologies for the 21st century.

Berleur, J. (2004). The Information society: Evolving landscapes. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Bica, I., In Naccache, D., & In Simion, E. (2015). Innovative security solutions for information technology and communications: 8th International Conference, SECITC 2015, Bucharest, Romania, June 11-12, 2015. Revised selected papers.

Chandra, R. (2013). Information technology in 21st century. New Delhi: Kalpaz Pub.

Jin, D., & Lin, S. (2012). Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering [recursoelectrónico]: Volume 2. Alemania: Springer Healthcare Ltd.

Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R., & Scott, M. M. S. (2015). Inventing the organizations of the 21st century. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Tomei, L. A. (2008). Encyclopedia of information technology curriculum integration. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.