Sample Management Paper on Organizational Culture Change


For an organization to thrive and survive,it has to change some of its culture so as to have a competitive advantage over its competitors. Though culture cannot be overlooked ,an organization has to develop new strategy basing on its culture for effective change, creativity and innovation .Basing on the Harvard Business review  journal (2012),’cultural change that sticks ,start with what is already working.’ and other authors this paper analyses organization  culture change ,forces that drives for organization  culture change both external and internal factors. Change can  have both negative and positive responses hence the report gives  change management strategies  both from the acceptable Kurt Lewin model and other models .The paper also analyses  the concepts of innovation and creativity within an finds ways of encouraging innovation such as integrating  formal and informal interventions ,leadership ,open communication and innovation  strategies. The paper concludes by discussing the principles and practices of innovation and creativity


Organizational  Culture Change

Organization culture change is defined as any alliteration in one or more elements of the organization .This change can be in form of new product or process, new method of doing work ,new organization structure and change in personnel policy or employee benefits. There are two types of organization change. Planned change involves actions based on a carefully thought-out process for change that anticipates future difficulties,threats  and opportunities The second type reactive change refers to changes made in response to situations and are primarily unplanned in nature

Reasons for change within organization

Organization culture change is inevitable in a progressive culture .Modern organizations are highly dynamic,versatile and adaptive to the multiplicity of changes .organization change maybe be necessitated by both external and internal factors

External factors

These are pressures derived from the organization’s general and task environment .Every organization affects and is affected by others –be it suppliers, shareholders ,customers ,government or trade unions .Hence an organization has to give in consideration on its own goals and the goals of others .For instance government regulations on health ,safety ,and the conduct of business affect an organization .Labor laws influence hiring ,paying ,training production decisions. Advancement in technology yields new production techniques thus the need for change in an organization. Another factor is change in market situations such as competitors ,needs and desires of consumers , suppliers and trade unions .For an organization to survive it has to cope with the changes in market situation .political factors such as new laws ,court decisions affect organizations resulting to change. Other factor is business mergers and acquisition which prompts organizations to change their culture(Jon R Katzeback et al,2012)

Internal factors

These are changes resulting from within the organization .They include: changes in the managerial policy and style such as revision in organizational goals may call for change(Jon R Katzeback et al 2012).Internal inefficiency may force organizations to change their structure due to imbalances in management .internal pressures such as employees desire for share in decision making, higher wage rates ,conducive working conditions may call for change in an organization


Characteristics of successful change and unsuccessful change

Most changes disturb the equilibrium of situations and environment within which individuals or groups exists. These responses maybe positive or negative depending upon the fact as how they affect people. successful change leads to increase in output as individuals accept new ways of doing things which increases productivity. Leadership ,without a doubt is a strong component  of success of any organizational change and with good leadership there is support and non-resistance to change from employees .Another aspect of  organizational change success is standards. With successful culture change there is high standard upheld by the management as well as employees (Larios A,2020).

Unsuccessful change leads to less productivity as individuals are demotivated ,do shoddy work and there is increased absenteeism. Also there is a lot of resistance as individuals fear losing their jobs ,status quo and losing power for those in managerial positions

Effective change management strategies

By definition management is the art and science of getting things done through people thus favourable culture change can be brought about only by working through of the most accepted model for bringing change in people was suggested by Kurt Lewin in terms of three phase process .The first phase is the unfreezing whereby an individual is made to realize that their belief or behavior is no longer appropriate to the current situation hence need for change. Once the individual has accepted to change the next phase is changing whereby they are provided with new model to align themselves to through internalization .The last stage is refreezing ,an individual has to practice and experiment with the new methods of behavior to see if it blends with his other behavioural attitude. Other change management strategies include matching strategy with culture; culture is ingrained and any strategy that is at odds with a company’s culture is doomed. Culture trumps strategy every time(Jon R Katzeback et al,2012).another strategy is focus on few critical shifts in behavior which if heavily emphasized ,employees will develop additional ways to reinforce them. Another way is redesigning systems to support new changes for example re-engineering and total quality management .The organization can also introduce activities and policies that might replace obstructive values. Training and development can improve behavioral skills and knowledge.

The Concepts of creativity and innovation

Schumpeter(2017) defines innovation as new changes implemented in developing organizational forms ,new combinations of new or available information ,resource equipment and other factors .innovation is considered and accepted as the competitive advantage for continuing global sustainable growth ,as the central process guiding financial development and sustainable competitive advantage of both companies and nations

Canon (1991) defines creativity as an opportunity to create new appearance ,content or process by combining existing factors or inputs of production .creativity is the ability to develop new ideas and use them face problems and possibilities ,while innovation is an  ability to perform  creative solutions in order to enhance people lives .Hence enterprises can be successful only if they invent and make new things ,or if they make old ones in a new way(zimmerer and scarborough,2002) .Therefore innovation and creativity can be used interchangible.

Conditions that encourage innovation and creativity

Dimensions of organizational culture that support innovations and creativity include leadership and management .Top leaders should find ways to encourage their staff to think about innovation every day, take ownership and responsibility for new ideas and solutions. Organizations should come up with good innovation strategy which will clarify what is expected of employees and openly define project target. An organization that is willing to take risk will create room for experimenting thus it will participate in innovation hubs ,looking for market adjacencies ,embrace co-creation and open innovation opportunities. Innovation and creativity also requires openness and transparency in communication. employees need clear ,consistent information on the organization so as to make right  innovation decisions .Employees need appreciation for being creative thus the organization should encourage this by rewarding and recognizing successful innovations and also ensuring their psychological safety.


Principles and practices of innovation and creativity

Peter F Drucker (1993) listed several principles which should be respected by innovators which he grouped into the Do’s and Don’ts

The Do’s include the following

First, Innovation starts with analysis of opportunity through unexpected events ,disagreements in the process, unexpected industry changes ,demographic changes ,change in perception ,importance and new knowledge .second ,innovation is a conceptual and perceptual activity thus successful innovators work analytically on the question regarding what should the innovation be in order to satisfy an opportunity .Thirdly ,innovation should be simple and focus in order for it to succeed .Forth ,innovation should be  aim towards leadership so as to be innovative enough


The innovation should not be smart as things done in a smart way are set to fail by higher probability,also organizations should not innovate for future but for the present

There are also other principles that give life to innovation which:

Innovation starts when people convert problems to ideas through action learning or .innovation needs a system which can either be formal or informal. innovation consists of both passion and pain  hence innovators should learn to manage both effectively .Building trust is also an important aspect as this will  increase the possibility of exchange of information, stimulation of creative thinking and critique of ideas. The other principle is differences  such as language ,culture, race ,gender being leveraged so as to sustain an innovation process.


Innovation and creativity are used interchangeably .Innovation,creativity and change are essential for organizational success and survival .successful change is critical but difficult to manage. Peter Senge(2006),where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire ,where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured where collective aspirations is set free ;and where people are continually learning how to learn together may lead to a successful organizational culture change as a learning organization is able to accommodate new changes hastily.



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Jon .R. Katzeback et al, cultural change that sticks;’ start with what’s already working’,Havard Business Review July-August ,2012

Larios, A (2020), Characteristics of successful Organization Change ,PM World Journal, vol. IX, Issue VII ,July,

Lewin ,K .(1958)’Group decisions and social change ’ in G,E Swanson ,T.M  Newcomband E.L. Hartleys (eds),Reading  in social psychology. New York. Rhinehart and Winston

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