Sample Management Case Studies Paper on Organizational Development And Change

Executive Summary

Irrespective of the nature of the change(s) within an organization, the effect or impact of these changes on employees cannot be ignored. Organizations introduce changes to improve performance, enhance motivation, increase management, and reduce operational costs. To help reduce the impact of changes within an organization, change management techniques needsapplication with skillful resources aimed at delivering the required methodologies, processes, and principles. As a process, managing, leading and achieving the desired results not be taken through a narrow approach. All actions and approaches need be customized to that specific organization and the circumstances leading to the desired change. On the other hand, organizational development applies methods, tools, frameworks, methods, technologies, processes to make a given organization more profitable, innovative, and productive while at the same time synthesizing its operations with the overall goal of success and managing employees. In fact, change management is considered as part of organizational development in the sense that, it forms part of the broader concept of managing the development of an organization.

1.0 Introduction

Organizational development and change management strategies focus on preventing the fall of an organization and aims at creating a clear understanding and execution of the outlined principles to achieve success. The aim of this report is to outline measures and strategic methodologies of improving the performance of Fox Airlines, enhancing better relations of the employees, and addressing the organization’s internal operations such as employee relations and performance. According to the preliminary study, employee satisfaction and performance has drastically reduced majorly affected by poor relations amongst the workers. According to the observations and study, the ground crew engaged with customers poorly with reckless friendliness and unconcern. The operations of the airline have thus been greatly affected by unmotivated employees, poor leadership teams, and low functioning abilities within the departments. Additionally, the organization has identified critical functions that do not meet the intended performance threshold such as conflict resolution, poor communication skills amongst the employees, low morale, and monotony of the jobs at hand. Additionally, the organization is faced with poor response to emergency brought about by the inability of the middle and top-level managers to create a proper working communication channel. The report would thus aim include at three issues; service delivery, knowledge growth, and service excellence. While the scope of this report is not only tied to the above three issues, it will also look into critical management issues that may pose a threat to the organization’s growth and internal management.

2.0 Organizational Development Theory

As a field of research, organizational development refers to the practice, study, and theory aimed at increasing the effectiveness and knowledge of employees to accomplish success in and organizations performance and change process. According to Waddell et al. (2013), organization development theory is dedicated to increasing the effectiveness and knowledge of employees within an organization to achieve success in change and performance within the organization. According to Quinney & Richardson (2014) and Bourke et al. (2016), the theory is thus a continuous process and involves planning, evaluation, implementation, with the aim of implementing skills to an organization’s ability to solving any forthcoming challenges and managing any potential future change. For example, Action research, theory aims at solving an urgent challenge or a progressive challenge solved by a group of people working as a team or as part of a larger community to advance on how they handle and find a solution to the challenge. Waddell et al. (2013) maintain that it involves active participation in a change process through an organization while at the same time conducting research. With the assistance of professionals, Shields et al. (2015) maintain that action Research aims at improving knowledge, practices, and strategies within the organization of practice. Researchers and professionals work with the team members or employees of the organization to chart a new course to help develop work practices and relations. The six steps involved in Action research include:

The question

The first stage starts with a series of questions necessary to address the challenge or problem. For instance, the poor relationship between employees of Fox Airlines may prompt the question of the role of the human resource department in handling disputes and managing employee relations. It may pose questions directed at finding the root source of the problem, putting in mind the major rift between the employees.

The Plan

Step 2 involves strategizing on the best course of action in which a series of steps will be undertaken to address the questions in step one (Waddell et al. 2013).

Collecting data

Darkow (2016) outlines collecting data involves carrying out a research and determining why the relationship amongst the employees is poor when it all started, how it started and putting into consideration some of the critical aspects of the conflicts amongst the employees.


Under findings, the researchers would analyze the outcome of the data, critically pose questions about their validity, and come up with the most probable explanations to the problem

Analyzing data

Analyzing data would entail a closer scrutiny, investigation, and examination of the raw data obtained and analyzed in step four above. It involves careful analysis, scrutiny, evaluation, exploration, and consideration of the scenario within the organization (Ho 2015).

6. Taking Action

The last stage involves putting down all the recommendations into action to effect the necessary changes desired.

The above steps are summarized in the figure below and indicate some of the processes involved in Action research theory.


Critics of Action Research argue that data collection under the theory is not vigorous and do not meet the reliability and validity able to meet verification process. It, therefore, amounts to working with assumptions and not scientific data collection (Dawson 2014).

3.0 Understanding the Change

A closer look and analysis of the situation with Fox Airlines reveals an organization in dire need of change, especially amongst the employees. The desired change would aim at empowering employees with the knowledge, skills, and ability to cultivate healthy working relationship aimed at steering the organization to success and better management. On the other hand, it reveals the urgent need to instill fresh and new working formulae and ideas within the teams, both the management team and the employees in cultivating a healthy working strategy towards achieving the organization’s goals. The current crop of employees lacks morale, seem stressed, and have a poor working relationship with each other. Additionally, the management seems to be out of touch with the reality on the ground such as monotony of tasks, poor customer relationship, and poor leadership skills amongst the middle-level managers.Understanding the need for change is critical for effecting new ideas and following up on any desired change process such as analyzing existing problems, for example, poor leadership skills according to Bridges & Bridges (2017).

Ho (2015) argues that as a component of Organization Management, change helps recognize a wide range of issues within an organization with the aim of improving the situation amongst the employees such as stress levels and monotony of tasks. Understanding change within Fox Airlines involves acknowledging the fact that not all is well within the internal management. It would involve employee training, coaching, and motivation whereby all executives, top-level managers, and employees are involved. Targets towards change need to be anchored on strategic, structural, and interpersonal ideologies relevant to the needs of the organization (Ho 2015). For example, within Fox Airlines, to change the attitude of the employees towards their tasks, an exhaustive study needs to be carried out to analyze and formulate a strategy towards changing the methodologies involved in assigning duties to the employees. Alternatively, employees need to be changed and occasionally moved to different workstations to prevent and avoid the development of boredom.

4.0 Resistance to Change

Resistance to change within an organization is a normally expected phenomenon. However, expecting resistance towards change is often the first step to strategizing on how best to handle the resistance. According to Ho (2015) and Watson (2013), people resist change due to some factors, including fear of the unknown, redundancy, and procrastination. Psychological reactions to change involve denial, depression, crisis, confusion, and anger. However, with time people develop acceptance and new confidence towards the change. Connections with the normal operation of things remain the more reason why people resist change. Additionally, misunderstanding, and low trust towards the change contribute to the fear of accepting a new way of operation (Chawla & Lenka 2015). On the other hand, poor communication, exhaustion, and lack of benefits associated with making the needed change prevent people from accepting any new way of operation. Watson (2013) further posits that other factors that prevent people from accepting change and aligning with change include lack of wide and all-inclusive consultation, low trust, temporary fad, and insecure feeling.

Identification of the resistance offers an opportunity to employ the best strategies for dealing with the change and resistance. Expecting resistance is often the first strategy towards managing change within an organization(Watson 2013).

Strategy 1

Communication and Education; Involves educating the people on the need for change before any step is undertaken. Close-knit communication offers employees the opportunity to see the logic and positive side to the change initiative, hence reducing unfounded fears that may arise (Edvardsson et al. 2013).

Strategy 2

Involvement and Participation: Involving employees increases chances of accepting the change instead of resisting it. According to Waddell (2013), this strategy helps employees identify with the change, reducing any chances of resistance.

Strategy 3

Support and Facilitation: During difficult periods, the best a manager can do is to help employees. For example, feelings of fear, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, top-level managers can undertake an open approach to identifying and offering support through counseling, special training, and time off. This strategy would put the employees at ease with any form of change that may be initiated within the organization as Watson (2013) maintains.

Strategy 4

Agreement and Negotiation: Offering incentives help employees change their hard-line position to that of acceptance. According to Day& Shannon (2015), employees unable to withstand, the change may be given the opportunity to change departments to avoid any form of backlash and resistance. However, Watson (2013) argues, that this strategy is best applied to top-level managers in influential positions within the organization. For instance, Fox Airlines top managers such as crew managers can be given the opportunity to change departments to maybe operations unit or the control unit.

Managing the Change Process

As a way of transitioning employees and teams to the intended use of new operations, resources, budget allocations, and organization process, change management is about reshaping an organization and steering it to new levels of management and operation (Yılmaz 2013). As a component of organization development, change management aims at improving things at the organization. Fox instance, in order for Fox Airlines to align its operations towards success, it has to change the morale levels of employees in addition to addressing the poor relationships as is exhibited in their day to day activities. Yılmaz (2013) maintain that poor customer relations are critical for its success and any sign of customer relationship is detrimental to the survival and growth of any organization. Change management, therefore, involves all groups within the organization, which involved low level the crew members, low-level managers, top executives, and other employees within the airline (Godemann 2014). Application of new work procedures, relationships, and job functions was outlined.

The Plan and collecting Data

Using the Action Plan theory, the change management process undertook steps by analyzing and studying the underlying concepts and ideologies of the organization. As an airline, the change process kept in focus the unique elements of operation and management aspect of the organization by reviewing some of its most critical aspects of operation such as handling a large number of customers at the same time during booking, changing flights, and movements within the business area. Some of the strategies critical to the process include the identification of the unique working relationship between the top executives, low-level managers, and the employees. For instance, communication and support formed a big portion of the overall strategy undertaken as a way of maintaining the overall working ethics of the airline. As a way of maintaining the overall goal of keeping the airline successful and best in customer care services, the strategies also entailed keen response of the employees as they form the central aspect of the change initiative.

Getting a background check on the operations of the airline formed the first initiative to understanding any underlying issue necessary for change. This involved a close interaction with the employees, operations within the airline, and understanding the different levels of management. The contracting teams of professionals were made up of individuals keen and knowledgeable in handling change processes in an organization. Given that Fox Airline has a big customer base in addition to over 300 employees, the airline required an incisive analysis covering all aspects of operation ranging from booking, in-flight attendance, crew operations, flights, and customer care operations. The contracting team additionally comprised of skilled personnel knowledgeable in flight operations.

Using the Action research, theory, the change management process covered the six steps in research action plan whereby, all the six processes involved careful analysis of the operations of the airline management. For example, a team of professionals undertook the role of identifying the identifying and studying the operations of the crew members and at the same time noting the response and attitude that customers received while at the airport region. These observations formed the basis of identifying any conflicting or uncomfortable situation that the employees worked. On the other hand, a different team of professionals went through the procedures and steps of management, especially in the office setting where most of the operations and plans of the crew members were undertaken.


Following an intensive and incisive analysis of observed findings, the team of professionals embarked on the challenging task of putting down and analyzing the findings with the aim of finding the inconsistencies and unnecessary procedures of the day-to-day works. A careful and analytical analysis brought forth the thorny issues that caused disharmony in the operations of the organization. According to the findings, the professionals identified the key reasons behind the low morale of the employees in addition to the poor relationship amongst the employees and between the employees and the customers. According to the findings, the management lacked in creating a special bond with the employees a fact that prompted the employees to disregard most of the directives from the top management. Additionally, the employees worked under difficult conditions, which demoralized their working spirit. The findings also revealed that, while the top management focused on expanding the services of the airlines, they failed to recognize the day-to-day operations, plans, strategies, and welfare of the employees.

Implementation of the Strategies

To prevent any backlash or resistance to the planned changes, the contracting team of professionals undertook the task of coaching and training the employees, top managers and executives on the need to change some of the aspects of the operation (Yılmaz 2013). This involved carrying out a well-structured training session that aimed at steering the minds of the employees to adapt to a new way of operating and relating with each other. Additionally, top-level manager and executives were taken through a rigorous session covering different aspects of management that focused on guiding them towards running a successful airline. According to the findings, Fox Airlines stood the highest chance of penetrating into new markets, expanding its market base, and adapting a new strategy towards overtaking its fierce competitors in service delivery.

The team of professionals adapted communication and education in addition to involvement and participation as the best strategy to successfully implementing the desired change within the airline. For instance, low-level managers such as the crew managers took an active part in helping crew members handle customers within the airline. Additionally, after careful analysis of the procedural plans of operations within the offices and outside with the customers, recommendations were chosen took a pragmatic approach in which all levels of management took part in implementing some of the procedural plans outlined in the organization’s blueprint. While the change initiated covered the wider aspect of operations within the organization particular, an emphasis was placed on the welfare and operation of the employees who formed the larger network of capture. 

Conclusion and Recommendation

Within the first six months of the implementation of the change process, much difference was visible with improved working relations and customer satisfaction. The employee relations amongst each other improved to unprecedented levels with the customers giving a five-star rating in their responses. Executive managers and the top-level managers found improved working relations with notable features evident in ease of flow of information and increased bookings of both local and international flights. On the other hand, conflicts and disagreements within employees, reduced to a bare minimum as most of the employees registered improved working relations. While it’s too early to give a give concluding remarks on the nature of the operations of the airline, the much progress achieved within the short period since the change process begun, is enough to applaud the achievements made so far.

Further and future training is still necessary for full implementation and adoption of the new work procedures by the employees. These would include training on customer relations, adhering to laid down procedures, and keeping the focus of the organizations long and short-term plans. Additionally, the top management needs to focus on helping the low-level management on adapting to the new changes. Through and by observation, the low-level managers such as the crew supervisors responded poorly to the initiated change due to the development of fear of losing their influence amongst the employees.


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