Sample Leadership Research Paper on Job Performance and Productivity

Job Performance and Productivity

Executive summary

Leadership is one of the very vital areas in the management of any organization.  The act of influencing the various employees and decision making to meet the objectives of the firms is one of the areas that leadership has brought forth.  In the organizational context, there is always the need to include various participants from the employees, to the subordinate to the top level management.  The kind of leadership instituted in a company will be a determinant factor in ensuring that companies get the best strategy for decision making in every stance.  Leadership has also been used as a backbone for identification, motivation and even the development of the workforce.  In most bureaucratic organizations, the daunting task that these organizations are faced with is the advent of making informed decisions that are in the interest of all if not the majority of the stakeholders. The stratified approach to every decision-making process that would be very proper in making sure that the company makes an informed decision is always strengthened by the high level of leadership skills.  The leadership skill brought forward would be used in making sure that every stakeholder is influenced in the direction of meeting the set out objectives of the company with keen interest on the harmonization of ideas brought forward at each stance. This paper is masterpiece of discerning the best strategy to use in making sure that the leadership of the organization is well managed.

Leadership: Job Performance and Productivity

Introduction

One of the means for which a company is deemed to improve the productivity and the performance of an organization is through a profound training on the cultural norms of which the structure is based.  As it stands, the main avenues of which companies can affect training in their institutions could be through internal and external job rotations, the classroom training, and also through case by case analysis of the various aspects of the leadership program. The periodical training of these individuals helps them to inculcate the comparison and high level of commitment to their job. The whole process has the profound effect of making sure that the performance of every employee is enhanced to the required level.  Additionally, the acquisition of higher performance will promote high productivity of the employees in their areas of specialization. The success got from this juncture is deemed to help the employees be committed to their duties and ensure that they are indeed on the right track when it comes to high being loyal to the firm as a whole.

Objectives of the research

The following are some of the aims of this study

  • To investigate how the various leadership skills are deemed to affect the job performance of different employees in an organization
  • To find out the real issues that surround the management of employees that are geared towards creating a workforce with high level of productivity
  • Given a context of leadership qualities, we would investigate the personality characteristics of a leader in an organization that makes them quite proficient in their dealings of influencing the decisions of various stakeholders of a firm.
  • To provide means and ways for which an organization could manage it employees in such a way that they are deemed to be quite loyal to the company with the keen intent of making sure that the planned goals of the firms are met adequately.

The thesis statement

In many organizations, the employees have a varied type of personality traits that affects their productively at every stance of their operations. More often than not, these companies are faced with the challenges of handling the various characters that emanate in the working environment and see on the best ways in which they can be handled.  The handling of these personality traits requires the creation of a conducive environment for which these employees can work best.  A daunting task that leadership of an organization must take is to devise ways and means of accommodating these personalities at work. This paper tries to give a detailed analysis of these character traits that are depicted by the employees. It also seeks to understand and bring on board the various means and ways in which these employees could be best treated to allow for profound management of the same for an efficient meeting of the objectives of the firm as a whole.

The basis theory

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)

The argument we have used here is one of the most successful approaches that have been adopted by many organizations across the world to discern the real advent of leadership decision that the management should take.  The theory connotes that there is not one legitimate way of determining the best leadership structure to be implemented in this prospect.  The theory pegs the strength of the leadership structure the relationship between the employee abilities and also the managers’ ability.  In the advent of ability we mean the level of expertise and knowledge one has, the willingness to carry out the tasks.  And also, the capacity to be confidence in what one is doing.  In this prospect, we would look at the model for which these scholars brought forward with the keen intent of looking at the various means and ways to which we can measure their ability and the leadership qualities to the employees in question (Mccann, 2014). For one, the Hersey and Blanchard came up with four distinct areas of concerns that depict the ability and the kind of leadership that one can provide for various groups of employees. These four set of groups are as discussed below

Fiedler Contingency Model

Telling

This notion entails a single way of communication where the leader is communicating on every aspect o the task to the employee.  Here the employee is given the instructions on how, why when and what to do at a task.  The mission brought forward is the reviewed by the same leader, and a proposed correction is given as per the instructions of the manager.  It is important to note that the leaders are seen to participate in various aspects of the execution of the tasks and hence he is charged with any responsibility that comes with the work that has been done by these employees (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981).  No advent of liability is pegged in the employee that needs to be looked into in this case.

Selling

In this option, there is a tow way communication where the leader is expected to give the employees the direction on the best way to carry out certain tasks.  The communication here mainly entails giving the employees both the social and the emotional support in the carrying of various duties postulated.  The role of the company in making sure that this is done is through thorough monitoring on the improvement performance of the willingness of the employee to carry out particular to them (Cooley, Walker, & AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL AFB AL. 2008).  The primary objective of the leader here is to ensure that he or she persuades the employees on working on the tasks given and give them the emotional support that would motivate them into doing these tasks.  At this point, it is the role of the leader to be liable for any discrepancies caused in the line of work of the employee.

Participating

Here, it is deemed that the leaders can give much attention to the inclusion of the employees in the decision making.  The employees at this point are also required to help in the various solutions regarding how the work should regard.  The company now lays some percentage of confidence in the decisions that the employees make. A leader, in this case, has been having little tasks of directing the employees since they sit down with the employees and diced on the best course of action to take regarding various tasks that need to be carried (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981). At this point, we view employees as rational beings who can be included in the decision-making process.

Delegating

In this segment, most or all of the responsibility are transferred to the employee through the using arm of delegation.  The tasks and the work schedules are left for the worker to decide on how they are to be arranged. In this prospect, it is imperative to note that the leader’s primary task is to ensure that the monitors the work done by the employees. The monitoring is done correctly by measuring actual performance with the planned performance.  A leader will as well give directions on the very critical issues that might affect the firm.  This type of leadership is very suitable for the companies which have a complex bureaucratic structure which the leaders are unable to carry out these tasks of directing and at the same time providing the work schedules (Cooley, Walker, & AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL AFB AL. 2008).

Hersey and Blanchard’s were also very keen to provide the categories of employees that need to be fitted with these four sets of the leadership style. The main reason they did this is to bring some sense of conformity between the type of direction and the best-suited type of employees to be motivated with this kind of leadership. The following are the sets of employee categories regarding their readiness and the how they have been matched with the types of leadership styles mentioned above.

Readiness stages:

R1:  the unwilling and the unable

These types of employees still have inadequate skills to carry out their tasks.  Additionally, they do not have the confidence in the discharge of the duties as well.  In this prospect, it should note with concern that the company will have to train and help change the attitude of such employees.  The best way in which this type of employee could be managed is through giving them the profound instructions on how they can carry out their duties at the same time showing them the direction through a high sense of encouragement and motivation (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981).  Therefore, the leader category that is very instrumental in making sure that this notion happens well is “telling.”

R2: unable but willing

This set of employees does not have the competence of carrying out their duties but are very ready to perform these tasks. In this sense they not able to take responsibility for their actions especially in doing the tasks since as at then, they have the inadequate technical know-how to do the task.  The best way in which this set of employees could be dealt with is through the use of “selling “kind of leadership. This type of a leader would ensure that they are in good terms with the employee by making sure that they train the employee on the various technical aspects if the company with keen concern on the different advents of work relations procedures and how they are deemed to used in the working environment.  The company will help these individuals through high-level training to impact them with skill and technical know-how on the various aspects of the work procedure (Mccann, 2014).  With this, the company is deemed to have a high sense of work relations with their bosses.

R3 able but unwilling

Here, the employees have the competence and the technical know-how t carry out these talks, but they seem to have a weak spirit of doing the work.  In this Advent, the high performance of the employee is impeded by the arrival of significant work low motivational stance.  To ensure high performance of such individuals, it would be entirely proper to inculcate the high level of motivation onto these employees o them to be up and about with their work procedures. A suitable leadership category for this prospect is the ‘Participating” the active involvement in the work processes is likely to motivate this set of employees in doing the work (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981).  This notion is because they will be challenged by the move taken by the leader to carry out the task on their own.  This knowledge is also strengthened by the fact that company will be willing to give some substantial incentive to influence the morale of these employees at every stance of their work

R4 ready and able

These set of employees have both the competence and the will to carry out their work.  They do not need any directions to complete their jobs. They have learned about the work procedures and have the enthusiasm of carrying out these tasks and therefore needs minimal supervision. The best leadership category for this set is the “Delegating” type of leadership which will have the primary role of monitoring the work that has been delegated to these employees

Literature review

In the context of the various personalities that have postulated as very influential leadership, it is imperative to note that Steve Jobs exhibited a highly stratified task oriented type of leadership.  The former CEO and the co-founder of Apple Inc. believed in giving very precise and well-documented tasks for his subordinates. We see him not creating a good relationship with his employees; this means he valued how the procedures and the work related tasks would be met and not who will meet them.  He also believed that if a person was given the well laid down procedures on how they could do their tasks then they will exceptionally carry out the duties without which they deemed to be messing up. One of the core values that Steve Jobs managed to lead his employees is through the sharing of the vision and documenting so that everyone in the company would follow (Mccann, 2014).  The fulfillment of his dream made the company as a whole to realize a high level of revenues and this motivated everyone in the enterprise.  In the section of leadership as connoted by Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT), Steve Jobs exhibited a “telling” approach to leadership.  This was evidenced how he influenced the actions and the decisions of other through giving them the various procedures and cohorts of instructions of how to achieve his compelling vision (Cooley, Walker, 2008).

In the contemporary society there various forces that will influence the attitude of employees towards work. The employees have diverse needs and fulfillments that they would want to achieve in their everyday lives. These achievements are very critical in determining the willingness of employees to carry out certain tasks. These forces could be in the form of reward. The rewards are categorized into two aspects; the intrinsic and the extrinsic rewards. These two sets of awards are very necessary for creating the motivation and fulfillment of the employee so that they become loyal to the company. The intrinsic motivation comes from the interests that an employee has the task in question. The employee in question ought to understand what drives them to carry out certain tasks (Snodgrass, & Szewczak, 2013).  One of the motivations that come with this kind of Advent is the feel of contentment with the job you are doing. 

Most organizations always embark finding the right person for the right job.  The main reason for this notion is because even as the employee carries out the task, they will be delighted in enjoying what they do.  The example of reward that a leader should embark on in this stance is paying a person with promotion in the area that he or she is best suited.  For example, a person working in the marketing department has the skill, the passion and the competence in human resource management (Hersey, 1985). If the individual is given position in HR department, the individuals will be highly motivated because of the better position but because he would exercise his maximum potential at this point. Giving such a person such opportunities help them nurture their talents and provide a leeway of making sure that they are indeed on a high scale in terms of their performance.  Extrinsic motivation comes from the tangible thing that is seen to motivate the employees such as the rise in the salary and the bonuses are given to the employees.  The leaders have exploited these forms of motivation to ensure that they influence the actions and the decisions of the employees in a positive way (Scouller, 2011).  The control is deemed to bring on board the notion of meeting the overall objectives of the firms.

Putting the development of various teams into perspective, there is five component of team development that is very critical in making the company have a formidable management technique. These stages entail the forming, storming, and norming performing and adjourning. The two stages that under scrutiny are the storming and the norming because they are the stages that a leader should be keen on while making the relationship with their subordinates.  In the storming stage, the members of the team do not still know their potential regarding their capabilities.  This notion has been strengthened by the fact that the group has just been formed, and the role of each team member is not yet defined.  There arise quarrels due to high advents of conflicting positions (Kennedy, 2012). 

The personality traits have not well mastered yet by the team members.  As it stands now, the leader’s primary role is to identify the personality traits of each member and try to give them a better platform to exhibit a high performance in this stance. The next stage which entails the norming, the team members already know each other, and they are ready now to work together.  Every person in the team knows the character, the capability and the personality traits of each other.  For example, we would know if a person is choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic or sanguine. These character traits will be used in creating the norms and the laid down strategies for which the team was constituted.  As a leader, it necessary to put in places every advent of personality capabilities of each person in its rightful place (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981).  This notion has the transcending effect of making sure that the company is indeed managing it employees in a well-corded manner.

The various traits and personalities that the leadership own always affects the way in which the employees perform their tasks and also how the company is deemed to meet its set goals and objectives. In an organization where the leaders are most of the times delegating their duties, the organization to promote autonomous thinking, and this helps the employees to participate in marking pertinent decisions that are very critical in making sure that the company moves forward.  In this leadership stance, the employees are charged with the responsibility of making sure that they carry out their tasks with minimal supervision additionally, the vision of the employees is also inculcated as one of the objectives of the firm (Smith, 2008).

Conversely, some leaders are action-oriented, and they tend to build their visions and missions which they expect the other member of the company to follow.  Te current context of this type of leadership trait connotes that these leaders are conscious of every detail that they need to be developed to meet these objectives. This is seen by the actions of Bill Gates in achieving goals, mission, and vision of the company with keen concern on the variety. Again the character and the personality trait of the various leaders can lead to failure of the organization.  One of the examples that are seen in history is the case of Enron Corporation which went into bankruptcy. From the analysis of this case, it is revealed that the then-CEO Jeffrey Skilling built a staff of executives and influenced these people into high-level malpractice after losing billions of dollars in failed projects (Blanchard, & Johnson, 1981).  It is due to lack of skill and high level of competence of the leaders put into place that led to the bankruptcy of the same.

The analysis

From the research done on the literature review and the study of the situational leadership theory, it is evident that the personality traits of a leader in an organization affect the performance a company at a greater stance.  Again, the quality of characters that the employees have also changes the way in which they are deemed to be managed.  The analysis also reveals that team management stages need to be checked to bring on board the best team of employees for the organization to thrive. The thriving of the group is based on the fact that the employee will always do what they best skilled at.  The company should, therefore, use the various techniques to discern the real potential of an employee with keen concern on the nurturing the personality for the betterment of the future performance.

We also noted in this grounded leadership study that most of the organizations are now shifting from the leader-centered type of management to a more collaborative stance of the direction position. Collaboration is seen to have brought great minds together, and the ideas that these thoughts brings forth are used to make very distinctive and well-informed decision-making stances that always makes the companies have a high-level competitive advantage over companies.  From the literature review, it came out clearly as well that most of the companies have the notion that developing leadership uniqueness was linked to the categories of developmental pressures, growing self, group Pressures, students’ changing scrutiny of self with others, and companies’ broadening view of leadership

Discussion

The appropriate way to improve the administration a given society is through the discernment of the character traits of the employee and the leaders.  The collaboration and the scrutiny of these two stances of personalities give the company a high chance of making a formidable position of leadership.  For a leader to influence the decisions of the persons working under them, they should be ready to get to the roots of examining the various intrinsic and the extrinsic motivations that the employees need.

Various environmental factors usually reinforce the patterns for which the leader’s personality can be enhanced. One of the examples that are given in this stance is that the male figure in the United States is required to exhibit a high-level personality that would embrace and enhance leadership qualities.  This culture naturally makes the man be quite aware of what is expected of them and behave and act in the way that is required of them as portraying leadership qualities.

In choosing the leadership strategy, the leaders should first discern the various character traits that the employee fraternity poses.  This would, in turn, help the employees to have an outstanding management of these employees in such a way that they would be deemed quite substantial to the development of the company and hence meeting the business objectives efficiently.

In regards to the 4 Ps of leadership, the company should ensure that the person/leader’s personality is up to date.  This means that in choosing a leader, the firm should choose a visionary leader who has the vision and the high level of concern when it comes to delivering on the objectives brought forward. Additionally, it should be noted with concern that the personal characteristics of a leader will determine the outcome of every stance of the role played by the head. Additionally, the participants which entail the employees, the shareholders, the management and also the public must be looked into and the best ascertainment of how best to treat them should be brought o a good stance in this advent. The performance is also very vital in the development of an excellent leadership program.  The program should be in such a way that it encompasses the measurement of the actual about the planned objective and the corrective measure thereof. On the account of perspective, the leadership should ensure that a profound strategy is brought on board to realize a stratified advent of change within the organization.

Conclusion

Mastering the art and the skill of leadership is quite important in any organization.  It would also be quite advantageous at the long end when the company also inculcate the advent of personality traits of these leaders and blend them with those of the workers.  With this in place, there would be a real streamlining of the variety of areas that requires a high level of discernment to be reached in all aspect of leadership.  Additionally, the leaders of an organization should be very keen on understating the real connotations of the vision, the objective and mission of the company to inculcate this into the whole system of the workforce.

References

Mccann, J. T. (2014). Leadership in the apparel-manufacturing environment: An analysis based on the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire. Minneapolis: Capella University.

Cooley, D. D., Walker, L. R., & Air Command and Staff Coll Maxwell Afb Al. (2008). Situational Leadership Theory to the USAF Officer Training School. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.

Snodgrass, C., & Szewczak, E. (2013). Managing the human side of information technology: challenges and solutions. Hershey, Pa. [u.a.: IRM Press.

Scouller, J. (2011). The three levels of leadership: How to develop your leadership presence, knowhow, and skill. Cirencester: Management Books 2000.

Hersey, P. (1985). The situational leader. New York, NY: Warner Books.

Kennedy, K. (2012). Devil in the details: The practice of situational leadership. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.

Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, S. (1981). The one minute manager. Escondido, CA: Blanchard-Johnson Publishers.

Smith, B. J. (2008). Parenting style, situational leadership, and parental satisfaction.