Sample Law Research Paper on Proposal for a U.S. Department of Sports

Sports Law

Proposal for a U.S. Department of Sports

1           Introduction and Background Information

            It is hard to imagine the existence of a world without sports. The thought of it all would be boring as it has been famously said that all work without play would make Jack a dull boy. This is especially supported by the fact that sports, more than any other activity has often attracted spectators, volunteers, and players who are all drawn to the sports according to Pedersen, Miloch, & Laucella (2007). This popularity goes beyond nationwide, socio-economic and political boundaries that can be invoked with achievements in every community in the world. Sports are particularly popular because when it is done right, it becomes fun and enjoyable for everyone, both participants and spectators alike. In situations where people are faced with difficulties that cause depression in their day-to-day lifestyles, the value of taking part in a particular sporting activity should not be overlooked as it can ease the pressure.

            Worth pointing out is that the government support for sports ought to be more than simply the number of people that play the sports. This implies that the value people derive from getting involved in sports is the most important thing. This is because getting involved in sports activities has enabled individuals to become more physically active. Better academic achievements in colleges and institutions of higher learning have also been linked to the quality of sports that lead to increased employment chances and a stronger sense of social incorporation. This is why it is imperative for every government department to be actively involved in the development of sports (Gardiner & Gardiner, 2004).

              Sport is a complex, multi-faceted activity covering modern sports like the summer and Winter Olympic Sports, pick-up sports like golf; recreational jogging, Boston Marathon, football, basketball among others that have over the years attracted millions of the American television spectators who are very passionate about sports.  They passionately follow through the proceedings of their favorite sports men and women and characters live out their dreams that nearly all people in the country shared growing up as children in gardens and recreational areas with their loved ones. For many die hard supporters of the sporting activities, a significant part of the experience is betting against the outcome of who the winner is likely to be in a particular sport and this often attracts financial gains among those betting.  

             Athletic companies have significantly expanded since the nineteen seventies with regards to their roles and scope and financial status. In the US alone, athletic companies embrace the lifestyles and athletic experiences of people from their early schooling years like the Pop Warner soccer and Little League baseball, through university years like the National Federation of State High School Associations, through college like the National College Athletic Association, and even beyond like the U.S. Olympic Committee and expert leagues (Pedersen, Miloch, & Laucella, 2007).

            Sports law has shaped the functions of those companies and continues to have a persistent effect on everyone involved in the field of sports, from ticket managers to advertising administrators to group doctors to the sportsmen themselves. Sports law helps to explain why sports businesses are organized the way they are. Frequently, the decisions of the courts have had a significant effect on teams and organizations (Gardiner & Gardiner, 2004).

            One of the most outstanding aspects about the US is how much sports have become a fundamental element of lifestyle for most citizens. This is evident on any Saturday afternoon as people of from diverse cultural backgrounds, careers and faiths converge in sports stadiums and in the gyms of their regional schools and group centers, to enjoy soccer, golf ball, football among other activities, while their families tag along to celebrate with them. Through sports, Americans have been able to overcome their differences in terms of race and religion to become one. Local teams unite to motivate the communities and spectators with the hope of winning the sports.

            Various definitions have been given by researchers to describe the meaning of the word sports. Sociologist (Zirin, 2008) recognized sports as activities that include the total motor abilities, competitors, and an organized set of rules. Another economist (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007) supported this definition by including that sports must also include the type of competition that is based on objective scoring of goals and points and with the use of devices such as balls or no gadgets at all. These explanations, along with many others, like the requirements that some players must receive a financial reward for achievements restricts the diverse benefits that sports have brought upon the participants. This implies that when defining what sports are, one must be keen to the elements that separate sports from other activities of skill like poker or chess and from other pursuits like dancing, climbing, fishing, and farming. Another element that must be taken into account is that of differentiating sports from exercises. For example, running has a competitive value while jogging does not as argued by Pedersen, Miloch, & Laucella (2007).

            The second step in calculating the economic scope of the sports companies is to determine the market in financial terms. Several frameworks for interpreting the sports market have been proposed; in cases where government policymakers expressed interest in calculating the overall financial importance of sports several decades ago. Russell (2008) talks about a general method for calculating the financial scope of the activities market, and points out that financial attention in sports expands well beyond the limitations of expert activities. The approach by Russell (2008) uses current global income and product accounting methods to identify sport-related sub-industries and aggregating across them.

2           Proposal Overview

            The effectiveness of sports can be felt across every department of government and thus this proposal seeks to advocate for the establishment of the sports department in the United States. It will highlight some of the benefits of sports to the country and propose a working structure of the department. It will also highlight some of the officials and their respective roles in making the department functional.

3           Context and Rationale of Sport Laws in the United States

            Sports Laws are the rules and guidelines that govern how the activities are organized and executed by all the stakeholders who are involved. Sport laws in the United States are currently diversified and cut across various areas including: Contracts law; Tort’s Law; Agency and Criminal Law; the law of Employment; labor and antitrust law; the drugs and testing law and the international property rights. These laws are applied differently depending on the situations and sport that individual players and other stakeholders find themselves in.

            Sporting activities are often structured and handled by individual categories that set up guidelines for qualifications and competitors, and legal courts usually maintain the activities of these categories as long as their guidelines are reasonably used. Perhaps the most important of these companies is the Nationwide Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The NCAA is the regulating body for intercollegiate activities and has over 1000 member universities.

            Sports Law can be approximately separated into the areas of beginner or amateur, expert or professional, and international activities (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007). The difference between an experienced and beginner sportsman is somewhat tenuous. Beginner student/athletes at universities often get grants and other types of settlement. Worth pointing out is that even though a sportsman may be described as inexperienced by one organization, he or she may not be inexperienced according to another. Amateur sportsmen take part in activities as a hobby while expert sportsmen are involved in activities as a career and source of income.

3.1         Amateur Sports

            The concept of amateur sports includes a range of activities from an individual who practices sports over the weekend to secondary and university student sporting in organized intercollegiate or international competition. Athletic activities are often managed by groups that establish guidelines for qualifications and competition, and legal courts do not interfere with the activities of these groups as long as their guidelines are reasonably applied. Perhaps the most important of these is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The NCAA is the regulating body for intercollegiate activities and has over 1000 membership from universities. Worth noting is that approximately 50% of the NCAA’s members are supported by government authorities, the Superior Court has suggested that the qualifications guidelines of the NCAA are not condition activities for constitutional law reasons (Gardiner & Gardiner, 2004).

3.2         Professional Sports

            Perhaps the most essential connection that characterizes sports as professional is the relationship existing between the individual player and the team owner. This contract connection is controlled by basic agreement concepts. Most activities teams now have a Conventional Performer’s Contract which works as a design employment agreement between players and owners. The design agreement can be customized to provide the special needs and abilities of individual players. With the increase in incomes in professional activities, most players are now managed by agents who conduct businesses on their behalf. Typically, this connection is controlled by a Conventional Contract or law which describes the responsibilities and settlement of the broker. Antitrust issues have also been particularly essential to professional teams. While soccer has been able to maintain its exception to this rule from antitrust regulation other professional sports activities have often run into problems in this field. 

3.3         International Sports

            The two significant international sports competition are the Olympic Sports, supported by the International Olympic Panel, and the World Cup which is supported by FIFA. The US Olympic Committee founded in 1950 has other competitions to which the US fields in a team.

4           Relevance and Need for a States’ Sports Department

            The globalisation of sport has shifted the focus of sports law increasingly onto international federations. These organizations control and govern international sport. They have sports constitutions and take decisions that can have profound effects on the professions of the players and that have essential economic consequences. To better comprehend what the American population believe about the significance of sport in communities and to assess their views on sport values and principles, heroines, and aspirations. In 2010, the USADA carried out a survey of nearly 9,000 Americans, comprising the general population, trainers and sportsmen, engaged in Olympic and non-Olympic sports. The key findings reinforced the need for a sports department establishment and were as follows:

            More than three-fifths of U.S. adults agreed that they were connected to sport-related activities and thus the need for a sports department that would cater for the interest of all these adult groups. Parents overwhelmingly cited individual and public principles when explaining the desires for their children to join sport.  Coaches attribute the role of parents as being critical to the influence on today’s youth’s engagement in sport. Americas consider the use of performance-enhancing drugs as the most serious problem facing the sports industry today, closely followed by issue of focusing so much on money, and the criminal behavior of well-known sportsmen. Nearly 90% of U.S. adults believe the fact that well-known sportsmen have a responsibility to be role models to adolescents, and thus the fact that the individual conduct of well-known sportsmen is as essential as their athletic achievements as noted by (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007).

            Sport plays a big part in American lifestyle. Approximately 162 million people, declare some connection to sport-related activities, including 25% who are actively engaged in sport as members, parents of children in sport, trainers, or volunteers. Sport offers many benefits to communities, as the majority of adults believe the fact that sport provides a source of fun and enjoyment (88%), can reduce crime committed by the youths and misbehaviour (84%), can show valuable lifestyle lessons (80%), and can bring people together in ways that strengthen communities (76%). Three-fifths of adults believe the fact that sport overall encourages beneficial principles. Fun is the most common reason children and adults give for initially becoming engaged in sport. On the other hand, when sport is no longer fun, children and youngsters are more likely to stop participating (Gardiner & Gardiner, 2004).

            According to Russell (2008), Parents largely name beneficial individual and public principles when explaining their desires for their children in enjoying sport. They hope that enjoying sport will educate their children to have fun, do their best, feel better about themselves, perform reasonable, have regard for others, be part of a team, and be competitive in a good way. Parents believe the fact that sport meets these expectations. In fact, mother and father so highly value sport that more than 90% of mother and father of children who are somewhat or very active in activities believe the fact that sport is fun and rewarding.

            However, U.S. adults are mixed as to whether sport overall is reaching its full potential in contributing to society’s principles. They strongly believe that it is necessary for sport to strengthen wholesome principles such as honesty, reasonable perform, regard for others, doing your best, group interaction, fun, effort, and self-discipline, and position successful and competition as the most unimportant principles sport should strengthen. However, interestingly, adults believe the top qualities that sport actually does strengthen are competition and successful.

            Professional activities are the significant draw for spectators. Two-thirds (67%) of sport spectators and 73% of men say they invest most of their time viewing expert activities. An additional 23% of spectators spend most of their viewing to school/college activities (Gardiner & Gardiner, 2004). Football is the most widely viewed sport in the US, as 87% of spectators position it among the top 5 activities they invest their time viewing. The activities market in the United States is a multi-billion dollar market and may soon exceed a trillion dollars at the global stage. There will be many job opportunities in the sell for well-prepared graduate students who comprehend the lawful and business factors engaged in solving problems arising in them industry.

5                The Proposal: Changes that would come about from establishment of the department

            Sport’s value as a social connector is one of its most reliable development attributes. Sport is a naturally community procedure bringing together players, teams, coaches, volunteers and spectators. Sport creates extensive online connections at the group stage, and vertical links to nationwide governments, sport federations, and international organizations for funding and other forms of assistance. These group sport networks, when comprehensive, are a significant source of community media, assisting to combat exclusion and promoting group potential to operate collectively to realize possibilities and deal with difficulties. Programs that reflect the best principles of sport fair perform, teamwork, collaboration, respect for opponents, and addition reinforce this procedure by assisting participants to acquire principles and lifestyle abilities consistent with beneficial community connections, collaborative action, and mutual assistance. If the population involved is broadly comprehensive, sport’s connecting dimension can help to unify people from diverse backgrounds and perspectives, establishing a shared bond that includes positively to community communication. Because of this, sport has long been used as a way to advertise nationwide unity and harmony within and across nations.

            Over the past few decades, sport has emerged as international mass entertainment, and has become one of the most reliable and far-reaching communications systems in the world. Because international sport activities offer capability to reach vast numbers of people international, they are efficient systems for community knowledge and community mobilization. By extension, high-performance athletes have become international celebrities in their own right, enabling them to serve as impressive ambassadors, spokespeople and role-models for development initiatives.

            Sport is one of the most cross-cutting of all development tools. It is increasingly being used to advertise wellness insurance avoid disease, enhance child and youth development and knowledge, promote community addition, avoid conflict and develop serenity, promote gender equity, enhance addition of individuals with problems, and enhance employment and financial development. There are few places of development where sport cannot be used as a platform for community knowledge and community mobilization, or as a program vehicle to increase individual potential and enhance lifestyles Mitten (2011).

            Sports can engage in a powerful part in both preventing and assisting to deal with a wide range of community and financial difficulties. They can be a powerful and low-cost way of reducing the individual and community expenses associated with development difficulties expenses which can be very high in some contexts and can significantly impede development.

            Sport is naturally about drawing on, creating and showcasing people’s strengths and capacities. By shining a light on what people can do, rather than what they cannot do, sport consistently empowers, motivates and inspires people and their places in a way that promotes wish and a good frame-of-mind for the future ingredients that are essential to the success of all development and serenity endeavours. Because of this, sport is also an efficient way of selling psychological and actual wellness. Sport can be used to persuade folks of all ages to become more physically active, providing possibilities for enjoyment and self improvement, building self-esteem, and promoting beneficial community connection with others all key elements in advertising and maintaining wellness insurance well-being.

            Individuals can have fun with the sport market in three ways: by taking part some sport, by participating in a ball sport, or by viewing or hearing to a ball sport on television, radio, or the internet. Each generates indirect and direct business activities. All three devote a while, and financial theory tells us that period use has a chance price. In this case, the chance price of individual contribution in sport is the value of the next best chance for an individual. For consumers of sport, this chance price can be valued in terms of forgone wages or earnings. Furthermore, taking part in sport needs devices, fees, and potentially journey, all of which generate business activities (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007). Attending a ball sport involves purchasing tickets, journey and perhaps other purchases like food and souvenirs. Watching the sports activities needs devices, in the form of televisions, radios or computers, as well as subscriptions to broadcast services.

            Sport in its broadest sense can be linked to the following individual rights including: Right to the highest attainable standard of psychological and actual health; Right to knowledge directed at the fullest development and development of individual; Right to take part in social life; Right to rest and leisure; Right for children to engage in perform and leisurely activities; Women’s right to take part in activities and sports; and right of individuals with problems to take part in sport on an identical basis with others.

            The primary idea is to help regional and regional authorities to meet European directives on advertising non-reflex activities in sport, together with community addition, equivalent possibilities and awareness of the importance of health-enhancing exercising, through improved contribution, and equivalent access to sport for all. In the context of 2014 – the Year of reconciling perform and family time – this venture seeks to integrate sport into family lifestyle as an action designed to develop capability of relating between people, to assist in the training of community abilities, to develop a system of abilities and principles but also to develop competitive spirit. This venture aims to provide an alternative for spending one’s free time, enjoyment, entertainment, and increase the popularity of outdoor activities. For the taking part bodies, the Erasmus+ projects supported in the field of sport are intended to produce improved potential and professionalism to operate at EU/international level: improved management competences and internationalization strategies; reinforced collaboration with partners from other countries.

            Sport has the power to unite people in a way little else can. Activities can create wish, breaks down racial barriers laughs in the face of discrimination, and speaks to those in a language they can understand. Cultural, artistic, leisurely, wearing activities and non-reflex perform enrich people’s lifestyles and enhance their connections with the wider group. International research has shown that increasing group contribution in organized sport and entertainment leads to what is known as community investment, which is the “social material or glue that connections members together in a given locality according to Mitten (2011). According to (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007) activities clubs and group organisations are essential conduits for creating such investment and are good barometers of group strength. Sport and entertainment provides the catalyst for group gatherings, from small functions to major activities, where people perform, talk and share experiences. Importantly, it has a good effect that reaches many levels of our society. It is a significant thread that connections our community material.

            The benefits on community communication, educational outcomes for teenagers, and the beneficial impacts on psychological and actual wellbeing which flow from contribution in organized sport and entertainment is particularly essential in regional places, where it has always been one of the primary cohesive elements that draw people together. Simultaneously when regional places are under pressure, the value of sport and entertainment becomes even more essential. In most regional and remote places, it is the regional tennis, football or basketball club that provides and sustains group interaction.

5.1         Social inclusion

            Sport and entertainment is a key method for developing new connections among different public categories. Individuals from culturally and linguistically-diverse background scenes and Natural People in America can be susceptible to public and architectural disconnection. Contribution in sport provides improved possibilities for them to plug with the broader group as noticed by (Thorton, 2011). As a result of a program in the Town of Stirling, new ties have been established between sports organizations and various immigrant categories, leading to cultural youngsters being confronted with sport and activities they may not otherwise consider. It is obvious that these organizations have taken aware of the fact that sport programs often decrease the public solitude for adolescents and that the city’s venture is young-people targeted as mentioned by Wong (2010). This is where sport and entertainment provides some of its biggest value – far from the features and television cameras. It’s about such as people a satisfying distributed experience and making individuals and our group more powerful through the process.

5.2         Connecting communities

            Sporting and activities contribute to the development of stronger public networking sites and more natural areas – for members, volunteers and followers. They provide opportunities for public engagement; often creating awareness and approval of differences between individuals and areas. Bringing people together through sport and entertainment increases confidence through periods during the success. Sport and entertainment galvanises areas in periods during the need. This is especially evident in non-urban areas, where traditional Saturday activities such as football and netball are the adhesive that ties the community; often acting as the main group public event for the week.  Mitten (2011) discovered sport and entertainment makes important public, financial, social and environmental efforts to the life of non-urban areas.

            (Thorton, 2011) outlined the importance of sport in his 17-year research of a Victorian non-urban group. His research discovered that sport and wearing groups enabled all members of a group to be linked by a common bond: their participation in that club. Similarly, (O’Reilly& Cahn, 2007) discovered in a research of two small Victorian non-urban areas that at a periods during the economical problems, when other institutions and components were vanishing, exercising and organized wearing groups stayed, offering a focus within the areas and a communal feeling communication. Useful public networking sites develop through shared wearing experiences and ambitions. For many, developing relationships and a feeling of that belong are powerful reasons why they become involved and remain effective in sport.

            Access to assistance continually comes out in research as an aspect impacting participation in exercising Russel (2008).  A 2002 research in America showed that more than half of the members participate in exercising with another individual, offering further evidence that assistance is key point in decisions about being physically effective Generally, locations with high stages of public investment are more secure, better controlled and more prosperous, compared to those locations with lower stages of public investment Mitten (2011) There are signs that sport can help reduce the criminal activity rate. For example, in the US, locations that adopted late night basketball teams experienced clearer reduces in property criminal activity than other areas (Kirsch, Harris & Nolte, 2000). 

            Building on the international human rights structure and the initial features of sport, sport programs represent an important, yet mostly low competition, source of prospective for enhancing and even speeding up development and peace initiatives international, particularly those relevant to getting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Sport alone will not enable the international group to achieve the SDGs, but sport’s exclusive features create it an important component of wider, natural approaches to dealing with each of the century difficulties. The possibility participation that sport can create, combined with the fundamental emergency underlying the SDG objectives, combines sport for development followers in their initiatives to engage and muster government authorities in third world countries to include Sport for development in their nationwide development frameworks and techniques, and to encourage government authorities in contributor countries to incorporate sport into their international assistance techniques.

            Based on the current available data in the field of sport, a set of signs that will allow the discussing and determining of best practices will be developed. The not-for-profit European sport activities suggested are: athletic, aerobic exercise, street ball, ping pong, golf, cross, bike riding / curler boarding, going up the, tree going up the, touristic alignment, archery, rowing, fighting styles, dance sport. Besides these activities, the project will promote young local artists through events, urban culture activities, sports-related seminaries, presentation of a nationwide sport from the various participating body.

6           Description of the Sports Department

            In America, the sports industry segments have been broken down into six groups. To begin with are the professional leagues in the United States. Big four leagues: the National Basketball Association, the National Football League, the National Hockey League, and Major League Baseball. There are also single-entity leagues, which include Major League Soccer and the Women’s National Basketball Association. The next category includes the intercollegiate athletics which primarily covers the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Next are the Olympics which will investigate the U.S. Olympic Committee, the International Olympic Committee, the international federations for sports, and the national governing bodies for sports.

            The fourth on line is the interscholastic athletics; such as umbrella organization the National Federation of State High School Associations and state governing bodies such as the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association); this designation also includes leagues for youths that are not “interscholastic” per se such as Little League, Knothole, and Pop Warner. The fifth category includes the public /private associations for professional and recreational sports. These have the Professional Golf Association, Ladies Professional Golf Association, and Association of Tennis Professionals. The next category includes country clubs, athletic clubs, recreation centers, and other places of leisure athletic participation while the final group has the facilities, agency firms, and media.

            These six groups have become increasingly interconnected as sport has evolved as a business. This is especially true as it relates to the law. There are common legal concerns unite the six groups by minimal degrees of separation. Consequently, it may be beneficial for participants in one area to possess a working knowledge of the legal and business aspects of another area.  Professional sports leagues make up a large share of the more than $213 billion sports industry in the United States, transforming sports into an increasingly businesslike field since the 1970s. Because of the large amounts of money involved in professional sports leagues, industry professionals must understand a wide range of legal issues, including but not limited to: labor and antitrust, merchandising, television, drug testing, contracts, and employment law.

Figure 1: Sports Law structure in the United States

6.1         Objectives

The major objective of the department would be to promote an organized and professionally managed sports industry in the United States.

6.2         Target Audience

            The sports department of the State will target various stakeholders just as all the other policy and program development programs have often done through engagement with all key stakeholder groups. These target groups will help determine needs, possibilities, and the main concerns of the department. Stakeholder categories will include: the appropriate government departments and agencies; Local governments; Schools; Sport federations and nationwide Olympic and Paralympics committees; Household and international municipal community companies involved in development; Private industry companies involved with sport and/or development; UN and other multilateral associates, such as regional systems such as the Western Partnership and Africa Union and the media.

            Governments can benefit from determining key municipal community stakeholders and developing procedures to: Interact with them in plan and system development; Keep them informed of govt Sport Department activities; encourage their cooperation in utilizing resources for the department; and accomplish social media and data exchange possibilities. International and nationwide development NGOs, beginner sport federations and companies, and native grassroots companies play a critical role in promoting the sports department. These will include: essential intermediaries between government authorities and the people they are working to assist; Primary distribution providers for programs; databases of community, development and/or sport information, skills, and leadership; and mostly reliable and revered by their members and stakeholders. As such, these categories are necessary and central associates when it comes to developing the activities department, plan and system loyalty, development and implementation.

6.3         Proposed Oorganization Structure of Department of Sports

The proposed structure of the department will include the following officials.

Department of SportsState Sports Council
Chief Minister for SportsPresident- State Sports Council
Minister of SportsSenior Vice President-State Sports Council
Principal Secretary/ Secretary SportsVice President-State Sports Council
Additional/ Joint Secretary
Director of SportsSecretary- State Sports Council  
Joint of Director Sports
Deputy Director of Sports
Assistant Director of Sports
Joint Secretary- State Sports Council
Assistant Secretary-State Sports Council
District Sports OfficerSecretary-District Sports Council
These will be followed by other members of junior positions such as: senior coaches, coaches, junior coaches and coaches of sports authorities.

7           Key Activities

            Once sufficient interest is established, cross-departmental systems for managing plan and system development and execution are useful. These systems enhance knowledge-sharing, help to prevent replication of effort between departments, and enhance a more incorporated approach to development, which is often accepted by exterior associates and areas. Two commonly used techniques for inter-departmental cooperation include: To first set up official and casual inter-departmental operating categories. Sport for development initiatives can be increased, for example, when sport and development departments meet and work together on consistently. Secondly, it would be through creating sub-committees concentrated on specific places such as analysis or capacity-building. Sub-committees can set up clear, distributed objectives, a few of concern objectives and a work plan. These steps can help encourage departments to take part and will ensure improvement in developing Sport for development, support and potential.

            Governments can benefit from trading information and encounters with their colleagues on a local foundation and taking part in international ministerial conferences, operating categories, and conventions. Guidelines and projects performed in these fora can be useful factors for improving plan and system development at home. They also offer possibilities for synchronized projects and relationships with other government authorities in places such as analysis, capacity-building, and combined programs, increasing the sources available to taking part governments.

7.1         Utilize other international networks

            Governments can expand on knowledge exchange, coordinated initiatives, partnerships, and resources by participating in broader cross-sectoral sports events which offer access to the knowledge and expertise of leaders from the private sector, sport federations and organizations, NGOs, and the international research community.

7.2         Build public support for Sport for Development and Peace

            Community involvement and assistance is necessary to the success of the department. This is particularly true when there are questions about whether investment in sport should be a govt concern, given other powerful development needs. A clear public concept placement sport as an effective way to meet these needs is essential in these conditions. To develop public assistance for Sport department, govt supporters are welcomed to: Use research proof and illustrations from effective programs/projects to tell a powerful tale about what sport can do. Including the press to provide this concept can improve attention and support; Take advantage on the function that sportsmen, groups and sport numbers can play as advocates; and Interact with municipal community stars in forming the sports department guidelines and applications because they can provide important ideas and be strong advocates.

7.3         Determine the need for a national Sport for Development and Peace policy

            In some cases, another Sport for Development and Serenity policy may be appropriate and necessary to relocate Sport for Development and Serenity. This must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Make use of current development and sport guidelines and applications as potential systems for Sports. These should be evaluated independently to ensure their relevance for the purpose (Epstein & Epstein, 2013). Government authorities of developed countries – Consider creating Sport for Development and Serenity into international development and international sport guidelines. Sport can be a great tool to relocate international support main concerns. Unless Sport for Development and Serenity is incorporated into international support main concerns, international and grassroots NGOs will have difficulty obtaining financing for tasks and creating country governments will be declined an important source of funds for scaling-up successful nationwide programs.

8           Expected Results

            Sport and entertainment is a large company. From pitch supervisors, activities directors, instructors, instructors, authorities and sportsmen, to teachers and event supervisors, to travel and leisure and retail, sport and entertainment cuts across many areas comprising a wide and different market (Epstein & Epstein, 2013). Sport and recreation’s participation to America’s GDP is approximately two percent, which is larger than the automobile market. In the 2006 Demographics, nationwide 75,155 individuals were applied in sport and actual entertainment professions, an increase of 21.6 per penny compared to the 2001 Demographics. In WA there were 7446 people applied in sport and entertainment. The department’s research in 2004 revealed that American homeowners spent more than $409 million on selected activities and actual entertainment items, including sport and entertainment automobiles, items, fees and services according to Mitten (2011). This symbolizes 1.6 per penny of the total expenses by the American households.

8.1         Events and tourism

            In a more and more aggressive market, where sport and particularly sports are seen as an ideal method to increase product/service attention, sport support was approximated to be worth in excess of $1 billion dollars in the United States in 2004 as noticed by Russell (2008) up from $282 thousand. Significant sports and competition also produce career, facilities investment and entice thousands of holiday makers to the United States every year. As a result of hosting the cricket Test between The United States and Britain in Perth from 2006, more than 4400 road and international guests came to WA, spending $12.5 thousand (Epstein & Epstein, 2013).

            The United States wills variety six major School Sports activities from 2009 to 2016, producing an approximated $17 thousand in guest expenses according to Wong (2010). The country has organised suits that were of international prominence thus producing over 42 thousand dollars for the State economic system. This means that sports have a greater potential of exciting the economic system as sustained by Mitten (2011)

8.2         Increasing productivity

            Research indicates a direct connection between the health of an individual and their level of efficiency. Healthier, fit workers are more likely to be productive, with increased outcome due to mind-set and inspiration changes from beneficial leisure experiences improving their total well being (Russell, 2008). They are consequently better equipped to deal with the actual demands of their job and to deal with stress and psychological pressure. Healthier people love greater independence and opportunities to increase their health and to get involved in society. Healthier people in America are more able to get involved in perform, sport and family activities. During our operating lifestyle, great health is key point in labor force contribution and efficiency. Sound psychological health may also affect levels of efficiency. Participation in sport can deliver beneficial psychological health advantages, such as improved self-esteem and self-worth through accomplishment and social interaction. Productivity can also be calculated in absenteeism. Corporate athletic applications have lead in absenteeism being reduced between 23 % and 50 % (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007)

            There are many simple ways companies can enhance health, with workers and the organization enjoying the advantages as (Zirin, 2008) understands this. It has been shown that contribution in workplace exercising applications can: Improve psychological focus, stamina, reaction time and memory, Improve performance, Develop a better relationship between workers, Improve perform enjoyment, Improve job satisfaction and Improve performance. Regular exercising has the potential to reduce employee absenteeism by an average of 1.5 times per employee annually. This means the net equivalent of $84.8 million for each additional 10 % of the important population that takes up exercising according to Kirsch, Harris & Nolte, (2000).  A study in The Holland found overweight workers were missing 14 times annually more than normal-weight workers (Zirin, 2008).

8.3         Reduced health costs

            It is recognized that sports and entertainment activities contributes towards a society with healthy inhabitants, which in turn places less pressure on the medical care program. Researchers project that if the typical United States 10-year-old remains an effective participant in sports, then his or her Body Mass Index is more likely to remain within the healthy range as noted by Wong (2010).  This implies that improved contribution in sports and recreational provides substantial returns to the public and private spaces through improved wellness. Even average physical work out is a positive measure that significantly decreases health expenses.

            Increased bodyweight and related rates of being obese lead to increased medical expenses. An analysis done by Mitten (2011) mentioned that if more people were physically active for just 30 moments a day the United states healthcare program could save $2.5 billion dollars annually. According to (Zirin, 2008) the total economic expense of being obese in America in 2005 was $41 billion, with the price to the United States economy being $10 billion dollars. Nationwide, this is predicted to improve to $34.6 billion dollars by 2017. Russell (2008) points out an absence of exercising as second only to tobacco as the major cause of the overall burden of illness among people, contributing to around 13,000 fatalities yearly. This matches to 36 fatalities per day or 1.5 fatalities per hour. Similarly, (O’Reilly & Cahn, 2007) points out absence of exercising is also a major cause major to an outbreak of obese and being obese, with more than half of people now considered obese (Russell, 2008)

            People who participate in sports enjoy better psychological wellness, are more alert, and more resilient against the pressures of modern living. Zirin (2008) mentioned that participation in sports groups’ decreases pressure, anxiety and depression and the symptoms of Alzheimer’s illness. The same specialist, Zirin (2008) while conducting research for the WA Centre for Health insurance coverage aging, found just 20 minutes of average work out a day can protect the brain from forgetfulness and potentially delay dementia. If an additional 40 % of the United States inhabitants engaged in frequent, average and effective work out, an estimated net benefit of $6.5 million per day would benefit from reduced expenses associated with cardiovascular illness, back problems, absenteeism and low workplace efficiency. In a country where health expenses are required to rise from 3.8 percent of GDP this season to more than five % within two decades, we must ensure a healthier, more effective population. Setting up the sports department will thus reduce the operational burden across other departments like health and education in America according to Mitten (2011).

8.4         The environmental value of sport

            Sporting activities are facing the threat of lack of community space. As a result, the need to maintain and secure public spaces is becoming more important. The State’s recreational areas are key resources that depend on successful planning and control to reduce the negative effect of human activity in the atmosphere. Sustainable sport activities and entertainment play a significant role towards the protection of the environment and reducing the impact of harmful human activities as mentioned by Kirsch, Harris & Nolte, (2000).  Through the provision of recreational areas, and protected natural surroundings, sport leads to environmental friendly and health of the communities.

8.5         Promotion of the urban and regional regeneration

            Investment in the sports department will enhance the American citizens’ understanding of their local community, restore their regional pride and promote their social and financial opportunities. The department will also be a symbol of change to the image of the nation, enhance urban development and economic redevelopment as noted by (Zirin, 2008). The United States hosted the Olympic Sports in 1996 and this greatly improved the infrastructure of the country. It also advanced the entertainment and recreational centers of the Country thus attracted more than seven million visitors that year. The Country would thus benefit even more from the newly established Sports Department that will promote the implementation of several such activities.

9           Proposed sources of funding for the department

            The sports department will need various resources and stakeholders to generate funds for the operations of daily sports. All financing for the infra- structure, equipment and for providing grants to various systems for the department will be done through the department’s development funds. Half of the Sports development grants and funds gathered from the schools and colleges will be budgeted to enable the execution of sports in the department. The sports department shall come up with detailed guidelines for providing the resources to other entities that fall within its mandate and shall have abilities to modify the rates occasionally. The department shall also raise resources from the following sources: money collected from the competitions and matches as scheduled:  contributions made from local bodies and academic institutions that intensively engage in sports: contributions through any other resources which the Department may consider proper. The department may assign any abilities to any of the office bearers to conduct fund raising activities as considered appropriate. Such employees may further sub-delegate their abilities to any of the authorities of the department. The department may frame rules and regulations for carrying out its sports activities in line with the funds provided.

10       Conclusion

                        Societies today become inactive without the presence of sporting activities that make them vibrant and lively. Sports have become a big business cutting across many areas and a method of promoting development and sustainability in the communities in which we live. The increase of sports coverage in the international media makes the one of the most highly effective and globalized interaction systems in the world. Global professional sports federations and companies can best collaborate with the US government authorities that are working towards the establishment of a sports department to advance development and sustainable goals. 

            Sporting activities have also elevated the achievements and impacts of celebrity sportsmen, making them important spokespeople, heroines, and associates in Sports departments and development activities across the world. These are only examples of the potentials that sports can bring about to our country if the department is operationalized. All government departments perform an effective and crucial part in achieving the national goals of their countries. This is true even when it comes to the sport activities at national and community levels for people of all age groups and capabilities. Few government departments across the world have, however, made deliberate and effective use of sports on an extensive mission for improving their household and international development thus through the establishment of such a department in the US, we will be one of the countries that have achieved this noble objective.

11       Budget allocations

Fiscal Years 2015-2019
Income and Expenses 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total
Sources of funding             
 Schools  25 22        
 Colleges    28 25      
 Development Fund      28 25    
 NGOs        28 25  
 Development partners          28  
 Total  25 50 53 53 53  
  # of Credit Units  21 36 36 36 36  
  Fee per Organization   $ 595.00  $ 595.00  $ 595.00  $ 595.00  $ 595.00  
Income from the sources   $ 312,375  $ 1,071,000  $1,135,260  $ 1,135,260  $ 1,135,260  $4,789,155
               
Personnel  155,010  $  436,904  $  455,129  $  455,129  $  455,129  $1,957,301
 (Instructional cost, administrative staff, support staff)            
             
               
Operations   $ 31,418  $ 96,333  $  102,059  $  102,059  $  102,059  $  433,926
 (General Office expenses, phone, mailings, data services, memberships, travel, conference fees, etc.)            
             
             
               
Equipment and Materials   $ 22,266  $ 58,125  $  61,163  $ 61,163  $ 61,163  $ 263,878
 (Computer refresh, furniture refresh, library materials, Instructional equipment)            
             
             
               
CSUN & Chancellor Overhead  $ 39,047  $ 133,875  $ 141,908  $ 141,908  $ 141,908  $ 598,644
               
Total Expenses   $ 247,740  $ 725,237  $ 760,258  $ 760,258  $ 760,258  $3,253,749
               
Net Cash Flow             
 Initial Investment             
 Cash Flow from Program   $ 64,635  $ 345,763  $ 375,003  $ 375,003  $ 375,003  
     Net Return   $ 64,635  $ 410,398  $ 785,401  $ 1,160,403  $ 1,535,406  $1,535,406
   

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