Sample International Relations Critical Thinking Paper on Gender and Race in the International Political Economy

Gender and Race in the International Political Economy

Gender and race are major determining factors of global political economies. Gender has refers to perceived differences between masculinity and feminism in the society. On the other hand, race refers to a group of people with similar physical characteristics, such as color, language, culture, and ethnicity. From the past, there have been gender inequalities since women have been denied equal rights as men in the society. Consequently, racism has dominated most part of the world where people from certain cultural and ethnic background are being discriminated.  Robert and Williams try to expound on gender inequality that exist in the global political economy. Conversely, Donaldo and Panayota try to expound on the matter of racism in the international political economy.

In the book ‘Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics’, Robert and William discuss the issue of gender and how it influence international political economy. From the past, women have been perceived as inferior human beings and are less valued in the public as compared to men. In the past, women had no political power, could not own property or participate in decision making. Women were restricted to domestic duties and bearing children and they were not involved in any decision making. Robert & William (2014, p. 200) indicates that the discrimination against women deprived them of their rights to education, political participation and economic opportunities. However, in the wake of the 20th century, there were several conscious actions to bring women issues in the global context. International agencies started to realize that women play a vital role in economic development and hence they started to advocate for their rights. By late 20th century, there was the high presence of women in male-dominated areas and gained equal rights as men. However, in most parts of the world, gender discrimination is still in existence and women have not achieved equal rights as men. Robert & William (2014, p. 218), conclude by indicating that ensuring gender equality is the pillar of ensuring development in the global political economy.

In their book The Globalization of racism: an introduction, Donaldo and Panayota discuss the issue of racism in international context. Donaldo & Panayota (2006, p. 3) indicate that various group of people have been widely discriminated due to their race or ethnicity background. In the US, Blacks have been widely discriminated by depriving them equal rights with the whites. There have been several efforts to end racisms around the world in an effort to promote international relations. Nevertheless, racism is still in existence in some parts of the globe.  To support their case, Donaldo & Panayota (2006, p.9) give scenarios of how racial discrimination exists in the US. Despite the end of racism, blacks continue to be discriminated by being associated with criminal activities and hence being harassed by police (Donaldo & Panayota (2006, p. 33).

According to the two readings, the fight against gender inequality and racism has contributed to the development of the international relations. Women have started taking part in leadership positions as well as participating in national development projects. On the other hand, the end of racism has ensured equal treatment of individuals across the globe hence promoting international relations. Nevertheless, the authors indicate that gender and race remain global issues since in some parts of the world; gender inequalities and racism still exist. From the data provided by Robert & Williams (2014, p. 209), there is a broad gender gap in various economic sectors and in a political position in most parts of the world. Donaldo and Panayota (2006, p. 25) also indicate how racial discrimination still exists in some parts of the world, especially in the US.


Donaldo, M., & Panayota, G., 2006. The Globalization of racism: an introduction. London: Routledge.

Robert, O., & Williams, M., 2014. Global political economy: evolution and dynamics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter 10, pp. 200-218.