Sample HR Management Essay Paper on Human Resource Development, Planning, Strategy and Measurement

HR Management

Section One: Human Resource Development, Planning, Strategy and Measurement

Introduction

Human resource management (HR) refers to an office and a specialty in the study that deals with the management of people within an organization. This action is controlled by the human resource managers.HR office ensures that the policy guidelines are well kept and regarded. This docket also seeks to maximize the productivity of the employees. The areas covered by this office include workforce planning, recruitments, job designing, and analysis, planning the workforce, job pieces of training and performance management (Keplan & Norton, 2001). In this paper, we focus our study on the Air New Zealand Company and potentiate how when given the chance I would be able to handle the office.

Dating back to the year 1940, Air New Zealand (back then known as Tasman Empire Airways Limited) is based in Auckland New Zealand. It is an airline with a vast coverage of up to 29 international flights and 22 domestic ones. The head office is in Auckland City at the corner of Beaumont and Fanshawe Street in the western reclamation percent. This company has been in existence for 76 years (Boxall, Macky & Rasmussen, 2003).

Question One

In the business world, an organization without a vision is considered dead. Vision is defined as the overall capability to envisage future trends in the market and therefore plan accordingly (Kemp &Dweyer, 2003). The vision of the company as per this year is ‘To be number one in every market we serve by creating a workplace where teams are committed to our customers in a distinctively New Zealand way, resulting in superior industry returns.’ According to their website, they attribute their vision to the famous koru which resembles a “mangapore” meaning hammerhead shark that never quits no matter the situation. Also empowering the vision of the company is the New Zealand proverb that states that” okea ururoatia” meaning fight like a shark (Wiesier & McDonald, 2001).

Question Two

A mission on the other end is defined as the reason as to why a business exists or its reason for being (Keplan & Norton, 2001). Keplan & Norton (2001) further state that It is also defined as a statement or a sentence that describes the functionality, market, and competitive advantages; in other words, it is a shortened statement of an organization’s destinations and philosophies. This statement is important because it proclaims the corporate purpose of an organization and provides a general direction, motivation, image of the organization’s character, and the tone, or set of attitudes which guides the attitudes of the company. In a nutshell, the mission statement is the soul of the company because of the inspiration it brings to the company employees (Janssers&Zanoni,2005). To keep the company staff motivated and self-driven to utmost excellence, there must be a well-crafted mission that does this work. When the employees are in the spirit of motivation, they fully produce the desired outcomes because they will work because they want to, and not because they have to. The human resource manager, therefore, has to find out whether the employees are in the spirit of work or against it. As a manager, it is, therefore, important to ensure that the rightful motivational avenues are set, for example firing those who are not working in tandem with the company’s spirit. It is this same spirit of work that will culminate in a company’s competitive advantage (Boxall, Macky & Rasmussen, 2003).

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined as the process of running the business well to prevent malpractices. CSR should be fully incorporated in the mission and is best can be best achieved when starting a business and especially in the mission statement. If this incorporation is done earlier, a business will witness a high profile as a company and also be profitable. To achieve this, valid rules have to be put in place as well as good treatment of the workers. The mission statement of a company should, therefore, cut across the economic, legal, and ethical and staff discretion ( Keplan & Norton, 2001).

Question Three

 Air New Zealand has various missions. Its first mission is to optimize the operation of both domestic and international passenger transport and cargo. The second mission is to establish itself as a sustainable and long term business. The third mission is to provide value to all its employees, customers and shareholders. The company has showed an outstanding enactment of its missions. First, it has been able to offer world-class security and diversity in leadership by being a talent incubator for the employees. The company has also fostered   a culture that delivers a highly engaged workforce. Air New Zealand has also established a fleet of world class airplanes and hotel system that have surpassed what other airlines offer because of their routine network. Another way it has showed the missions’ enacted is in the way they operate on time performance, which they release on a quarterly basis. Their route map also makes them stand out because of its routine nature which is unique to the company (Janssers&Zanoni, 2005).

Question Four

Assuming to be the human resource manager, I plan to source a marketing manager in the company. The marketing managers are responsible for the effective operation of an organization. Chances of getting a job in such a post are very good for people with relevant experience and qualifications. This job uses leadership skills in challenging situations and one needs experience in the senior leadership role for an organization.

One may be advantaged to have a qualification in business administration, law or commerce, plus secondary education and personal traits like perseverance. Their pay varies depending on the size and functionality of the organization, and their qualification experience. On average the range of their salary is between $120,000 and $700,000 with a few exceptions earning more than $1 million (Carraher et.al, 2008). Overall considerations regarding the company state of employees include the human resource needs, the total internal working force, the HR gaps and the HR action plans. Specific information I would gather about the current supply state of employees would include the following parameters: the total number of employees considering the gender and sex issues, and if they are permanent or part-time workers, secondly, I would be concerned with the level of education.

Thirdly, I will review the total expenditure regarding the salaries that the employees are being paid and the methods of payment. I will then finally look at the performance ratios of the employees by looking at their performance appraisals and the signed contracts. I will also be interested in their respective ages so as to strike a balance between the aged and the yet still vibrant workers.

Figure showing demand and supply of the job market for my Human Resource position

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Question Five

 Trend analysis is a field of study of the past informal needs of a firm over a period to predict the future needs. After doing an assessment of the performance of the workers, it will be easier to develop a trend analysis and provide a projection of what I will need to achieve this. For example, if I noticed that the flight bookings occur most during the holidays and when we have more marketing, that would mean that if I want to increase the growth of the company, then I will have to employ only the experienced workers and with especially in the marketing field (Janssers&Zanoni,2005).

 The other two factors to consider are the logistics on the probability of what can happen to the current employees. This is because no workforce is often static. It can change due to firing, promotions or even deliberate quitting. A comparison of the future needs and mutual exclusiveness needs to be considered as well to succeed in an action of trend analysis. This trend analysis will help in projecting and weighing between the advantages or disadvantages of taking action (Storey et.al, 2010).

Knowing the job market is very important because of two main reasons. First, it helps the HR manager to plan for the correct interviewer and the expected expenditures. For example, if the job best suits diploma holders, the advertisements were done will only focus on diploma holders. The second advantage is that it helps the HR manager to pick the best-suited candidate for the job. This can be regarding the experience of the worker or the ready available ( Keplan & Norton, 2001).

One disadvantage of trend analysis is that trend is not static. It is like a flood that is constantly changing, and no one can stand against it. One time it may seem constant and another time it may change to something else. To curb this phenomenon, proper calculations must be done hand in hand with the financial analysis because we do not want to lose any profits even if the trend shifts suddenly towards the negative (Carraher et.al,2008).

Question Six

Measuring whether the human resource plan will be successful depends on the strategic linkage of the HRM department programs to the organizational mission and objectives. There are various ways to measure the effectiveness of my Human Resources plan related to the supply of workers against the demand. The first is workforce planning which would be imperative to the company in its planning of growth and limiting of situations wherever faced with too few or too many employees or the wrong set of skill. The planning would help the HR to forecast on the numbers of employees with specific set of skills which would help them achieve their strategic work objectives. The second would be  labor demand forecasting which would be   crucial, as the company wouldn’t  want  surplus of employees who will not be effectively and  fully  deployed, nor employee pool  gaps  which would result in low performance , productivity and  performance (Boxall, Macky & Rasmussen, 2003).

Question Seven

Job designing is also an important aspect in HRM. It is the allocation of tasks to different individuals or groups in an organization. There are   two various   theorists of job design. The first is Hackman and   Oldham of 1976 who developed the job characteristic theory.  This theory will influence my  approach to the design of the job through considering to include in my job design the  five main  job characteristics, which would engender three crucial individual workers’ psychological states in  experiencing meaning, having a  feeling of  responsibility  for their work  outcomes, and understanding  results of their  efforts(Janssens & Zanoni, 2005). The second theorist is Frederick Taylor who coined the theory of   Taylorism or the scientific management. This theory will influence my approach to the design of the job through the application of its principles of standard methods for every job department within my company to offer effective training and support of the workers based on the science for a diversity of jobs. I would also concider giving my company workers as much practical autonomy as possible, so they can all use more effective approaches for situations at hand. My company workers on front line would all exemplify flexibility within the working environment that is rapidly-changing (Kemp & Dwyer, 2003).

Section Two: Job Analysis, Job Description, and Person Specification

Question One

A marketing manager’s description is concerned with the practical marketing techniques, methods, and orientation within an organization. The marketing manager can as well act as a general manager. The methods they employ include qualitative and quantitative research as well as both experimental and observational studies. I rely upon job analysis because the information is useful in the creation of right fits between the employees and jobs, to carry out assessments of the employees’ performance, to establish the worth and value of a specific task and analyze development and training needs of employees as they deliver the particular jobs (Macky & Boxall, 2008).

The job analysis method I have used to collect the job information is Interviews.  In this method, employees are interviewed so that they develop their independent styles of working as they perform their jobs. This method would help me to know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her job and responsibilities involved in it. It would also involve analysis of job by the employee himself (Janssens & Zanoni, 2005).

Question Two

Using the job analysis information gathered and referred to in Question 1 above, a job description would be as below:

 Organization name: Air New Zealand

Job Title: Human Resource Manager

 Reporting relationships (internal and external)

a) Reports to the Director of the HR.

b) Reports to External Branch Operations Managers.

Job Purpose Summary

– Responsible for the satisfaction of all employees by ensuring all work according to their levels of professional expertise.

 -Ensures there is work efficiency in all departments by employing a work monitoring and supervisory system.

– Ensures the company meets its strategic goals and objectives through the effective employee management and maintenance.

Based on the job analysis, the job exists for various reasons and has various primary functions in contributing to the goals of the organization. The Human Resource Manager Job exists to enable the company develop and adopt a working strategic planning to the company image. In regards to contributing to the goals of the organization, the Human Resource ensures the company’s satisfaction of all employees, ensures there is work efficiency in all departments. It also ensures the company meets its strategic goals and objectives through the effective employee management and maintenance (Wiesner & McDonald, 2001).

 Five essential major tasks and responsibilities with one relating to Corporate Social Responsibility would be as below:

Training and Development

This task relates to Corporate Social Responsibility. Under this task, the employers provide their employees with necessary tools for success by ensuring the new employees get extensive training at orientation to enable them to transit into new company culture. Leadership and Professional development are also provided by the HR departments. Leadership training also involves reaching out to the local community groups for capacity building relationship establishments (Wiesner & McDonald, 2001).

Safety

The organization’s workplace safety is a significant factor that the HR department would consider. Under the Occupational Safety and health acts, the employers are obligated to provide safe employee working environments. The HR, therefore, supports the safety at the workplace and maintains   mandated workplace logs for fatality and injury reporting (Keplan & Norton, 2001).

Employee Relations

The HR is also responsible for labor relations. The HR discipline ensures that Employee relations gets concerned with motivation and strengthening the relation between the employer and employee relationship by assessing employ engagement, job satisfaction, and resolving the conflicts at a workplace (Janssens & Zanoni, 2005).

Compensation and Benefits

The HR would also handle labor and employee relations. This would be done by one taking care of the benefits and compensation functions. On compensation, the HR would also set evaluating and compensation structures (Storey et.al, 2010).

Compliance

The HR would also ensure there is compliance with labor and employment laws. Lack of compliance would result in workplaces complaints based on unfair employment practices, secure work conditions and overall dissatisfaction with work conditions which would affect productivity and profitability (Guthrie, 2001).

Question Three

The five appropriate key results areas and performance standards for each key result area for the company’s key result areas are customer satisfaction, product management, operational cost control, quality check and record keeping. The key performance areas for the five key result areas would be to recruitment  selection as fixing  two months as the  average time for each employee .The other would be workforce planning which would involve the maintenance of  absent rate at  5 percent turnover and  control turnover rates  at 7 percent. The other key result areas would be on the management performance in terms of appraisals’ performance as all the company staff being appraised annually at least once. The fourth key result appraisal would be reward management based on market based structuring of salaries. The other key area result would be on the workplace relations and management as job evaluations. This would be roughly, how the human resource departments key result areas would be set (Gazmuri et.al, 2007).

Question Four

The key results areas and performance standards are as customer satisfaction, product management, operational cost control, quality check and record keeping. They are appropriate for the organization’s mission due to various reasons. First customer satisfaction fosters a constant and stable in flow of customers to the organizations thereby increasing the profit margins. Secondly product management directly optimizes the operation of both domestic and international customers within the firm. The operational cost control ensures perfect monitoring and evaluation of the firm’s growth and development. The quality check and record keeping ensures the organization’s systematic management of its internal and external operations (Carraher et.al, 2008).

Question Five

Job Description of Human Resource Manager

Job purpose: the human resource manager will ensure excellent customer service and solve all technical issues.

The human resource manager should have a grounded technical knowledge and good customer service experience. A good communication skills and problem solving attitude. They should ensure increased client satisfaction and best quality technical sustenance.

Responsibilities

  • Manage the customer service desk and assess performance.
  • Ensure on time customer service on daily basis
  • Ensure the customer service standards are set high.
  • Respond to queries and complaint of customers thereby improving service to clients.
  • Prepare monthly and weekly reports on customer service desk thus ensuring team’s productivity.

Requirements

  • 1 to 2 years work experience as a human resource manager in an established company.
  • Practical knowledge on human resource and remote control software
  • Sound technical skills with ability to give instructions to non-technical personnel.
  • Excellent communication skills, both in written and spoken.
  • BSc. Degree in human resource or any relevant course

References

Boxall, P., Macky, K., & Rasmussen, E. (2003). Labour turnover and retention in New Zealand: The causes and consequences of leaving and staying with employers. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources41(2), 196-214. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Keith_Macky/publication/249633568_Labour_Turnover_and_Retention_in_New_Zealand_The_Causes_and_Consequences_of_Leaving_and_Staying_with_Employers/links/0c9605366b63b52a48000000.pdf

Carraher, S., & Parnell, J. A. (2008). Customer Service during Peak (in Season) and Non-Peak (off Season) Times: A Multi-Country (Austria, Switzerland, UK & USA) Examination of Entrepreneurial Tourist Focused Core Personnel. International Journal of Entrepreneurship12, 39. http://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/ijevol12no12008.pdf#page=47

Gazmuri, R. J., Nadkarni, V. M., Nolan, J. P., Arntz, H. R., Billi, J. E., Bossaert, L., … & Hazinski, M. F. (2007). Scientific Knowledge Gaps and Clinical Research Priorities for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Identified During the 2005 International Consensus Conference on E and CPR Science With Treatment Recommendations. A Consensus Statement From the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, Australian Resuscitation Council, European Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation ….Circulation. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2007/11/09/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.186228.full.pdf

Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academy of management Journal,44(1), 180-190. http://amj.aom.org/content/44/1/180.full

Guthrie, J. P., Spell, C. S., & Nyamori, R. O. (2002). Correlates and consequences of high involvement work practices: the role of competitive strategy. International journal of human resource management13(1), 183-197. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan007387.pdf

Janssens, M., & Zanoni, P. (2005). Many diversities for many services: Theorizing diversity (management) in service companies. Human Relations,58(3), 311-340. http://web.mit.edu/cortiz/www/Diversity/PDFs/Janssens%20and%20Zanoni,%202005.pdf

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2001). The strategy-focused organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Harvard Business Press. http://www.sixsigmamindpro.com/scholarship-info/Manufacturing_Digital_Oct_2013.pdf

Kemp, S., & Dwyer, L. (2003). Mission statements of international airlines: a content analysis. Tourism Management24(6), 635-653. http://www.academia.edu/download/41499490/Mission_statements_of_international_airl20160123-5154-q5sm5u.pdf

Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2008). High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being: A study of New Zealand worker experiences. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources46(1), 38-55. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Keith_Macky/publication/254078235_High_Involvement_Work_Processes_Work_Intensification_and_Employee_Well-Being_A_Study_of_New_Zealand_Worker_Experience/links/0deec5366b5c1db9df000000.pdf

Storey, D. J., Saridakis, G., Sen‐Gupta, S., Edwards, P. K., & Blackburn, R. A. (2010). Linking HR formality with employee job quality: The role of firm and workplace size. Human Resource Management49(2), 305-329. https://intranet2.bham.ac.uk/social-sciences/schools/business/documents/public/LinkingHRformalitywithemployeejobquality.pdf

Wiesner, R., & McDonald, J. (2001). Bleak house or bright prospect? Human resource management in Australian SMEs. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources39(2), 31-53. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Retha_Wiesner/publication/254078198_Bleak_house_or_bright_prospect_Human_resource_management_in_Australian_SMEs/links/54a7aa7f0cf257a6360ac742.pdf