Hispanic Pediatric Community
Community: Hispanic Pediatric. Date: 12/06/2018
A) Description of the Community
The number of children in the US – native and immigrants are approximately 74 million and 17.5 million are Hispanics. They are probably the largest minority group of children as well as the fastest growing.
- Type of community: urban, suburban, rural
The community needs assessment was carried out in Orange County for Urban Population health.
I) Physical Environmental Considerations: The Community As a Place
A) Description: general identifying data
Orange County, California
ii) Topographical features
California’s topography is characterized by several regions including Klamath Mountains situated in the northwest corner of California State. They comprise of numerous small forests that are covered by mountain ranges and are more elevated compared with the coastal mountains located to the South.
California is characterized by a Mediterranean-like climate that is featured by warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. On the coast regions, the minimum daily temperatures hang around 70°F/21°C and up), and sometimes can increase up to 80°F 27° C especially during hottest summer periods. The region rarely experiences freezing temperatures or winter periods.
B) Boundaries, area in square miles
As documented by theU.S. Census Bureau Orange County has a total area of 948 square miles (2,460 km2), of which 791 square miles and 157 square miles are covered by land and water respectively. Orange County borders the Pacific Ocean on the Southwest and Los Angeles County on the north, San Bernardino County on the northeast and San Diego County on the southeast. The northwestern region sits on the coastal plain of the Los Angeles Basin, and the southeastern prolongs into the bases of the Santa Ana Mountains.
C) Environment Community Needs Assessment
i) Sanitation: water supply, sewage, garbage, trash
Orange County is committed towards providing thehighest quality water to the residents. The county complies with the state and federal regulations in conserving water and ensuring that sewerage systems and dumping sites are well managed.
ii) Pollutants, toxic substances, animal reservoirs or vectors, flora and fauna
The County has put in place measures to safeguard the people of Orange County from the threats and risks posed by pollutants and vector-borne diseases. The population has a shared responsibility of controlling the vectors, such as, Mosquitoes.
iii) Air quality: color, odor, particulates
California is known as the only State with the worst air quality in the USA according to the study conducted by the American Lung Association. Indeed, several counties including Los Angeles, Riverside and Orange have always recorded the highest number of harmful days for ozone by discharging harmful gases (https://www.dailynews.com/2018/04/18/southern-california-has-some-of-the-worst-air-pollution-in-the-country-report-finds/)
iv) Food supply: sources, preparation
California owns more than 77,500 agriculture land that produces over four hundred commodities and 75% of the fruits and nuts used across America. Indeed, about 25% of the California products are used for export business.
v) Potential disaster in the population
Orange County is susceptible for natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, volcanic activities, windstorms and fires. These disasters can cause significant physical and mental effects on the population. The susceptible population such as the Hispanic children is particularly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters.
vi) Extent of disaster preparation in the population
Disaster preparedness entails creating awareness and informing the community about the impact of the disaster. In addition, the extent of disaster preparation entails increasing the accessibility and frequency of informational materials, trainings, workshops, and outreach in numerous languages. The county leaders should also increase the public service publications and share information in the ethnic media.
i) Types of housing (public and private)
Historically, the Hispanic community is family-based. As documented by the US Census Bureau (2010), the number of occupied housing units is approximately 935, 287, which is 100 percent. Out of this number, 61.4 percent (574, 456) are private housing units and the remaining 38.6% are public of renter-occupied housing units.
ii) Condition of housing
Most of the housing units are in perfect condition
iii) Percent owned, rented
As mentioned in (i) 64.1 percent are private owned while 38.6% are rented.
iv) Housing for special populations
Orange County has established a program that provides affordable housing facilities for the low-income earners and population with special needs.
- Near homeless
The number of Hispanics without proper housing is increasing as the government continues to subjugate this minority group.
As documented by the PBS Homeless Fact and Figures, approximately 41% of the homeless persons in the US are non-Hispanic whites compared with 76% of the general population. https://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/minorities.html
- Frail elders
The elderly Hispanics are unlikely to live in poorly constructed housing facilities since most of them are low-income earners and others are jobless. Some of them are even homeless.
E) Leading industries and occupations
The leading economic activities in Orange County include Agriculture, tourism, technology. Also, the highest number of population (65.8%) is civilian labor force.
III) The People of the Community
A) Population profile
i) Total population for children is 705,434 out of 3,010,232 total populations of Hispanics (Based on 2010 census)
ii) Population density
The latest population density conducted in 2016 for Orange County, CA was 3,962.
iii) Population changes in past 10 years
The population rate of change of Orange County, CA was -0.38% within the past 10 years.
iv) Population per square miles
The population density per square mile in Orange County was 245.26 in 2010. The percent density in the urban and rural regions was 64.83% and 35.17% respectively
Majority of the Hispanics (78 percent) have not made any movement attempts during the past one year. Generally, Hispanic have moved and stayed in Orange County for a couple of years
vi) Types of Families
Most of the Hispanic children live with both parents.
B) Biological Considerations/Vital and demographic population characteristics
i) Age composition
The percentage of persons in Orange County aged between 0 to 18 years is 28%, while the persons aged 65 years and above is 14.3%.
ii) Sex distribution
The percentage of male and female persons in Orange County is equivalent.
iii) Race distribution
The following table illustrates the distribution of race in Orange County
|Race and Hispanic Origin||Orange County|
|White alone, percent||72.0%|
|Black or African American alone, percent||2.1%|
|American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent||1.0%|
|Asian alone, percent||21.0%|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent)||0.4%|
iv) Ethnic group composition and distribution
The following illustrates the composition of ethnicity in Orange County
|Two or More Races, percent||3.5%|
|Hispanic or Latino, percent||34.2%|
|White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent||40.5%|
v) Mortality Characteristics
- Annual Birth and crude death rates
Between the year 2000 and 2010, the annual birth rate dropped 10 percent (14.4 births per 1,000 populations) to 2010 (13.0 per 1,000 populations). In 2010, the number of births in Orange County was 38,237.
- Age-specific death rate
The death of children and youth aged between 1-24 years in every 100,000 persons were 24.8 deaths among the Hispanic/Latino children and youth in Orange County.
- Infant mortality rate
The infant mortality rate in Orange County is 4.1 deaths per 1,000 live births.
- Maternal mortality rate
maternal mortality in California declined by 55% between 2006 to 2013, from 16.9 deaths per 100,000 live births to 7.3 deaths per 100,000 live births.
vi) Cause-specific death rate (specific health area)
The leading causes of death rate in Orange County are a) cancer b) heart disease, c) Alzheimer’s disease, 4) stroke, and 5) lung disease.
vii) Leading causes of morbidity
The leading causes of morbidity in Orange County are poverty and healthcare disparity among others.
- Incidence rates (specific diseases)
The incidence rate of cancer inOrange County is 418.6 per 100,000 persons, which is significantly lower compared with California average (424.9 per 100,000 persons).
- Prevalence rates (specific diseases)
The prevalence rate of persons with (HIV) infection per 100,000 people was 259 which is lower than the California rate of 363.
- Psychological Considerations
In Orange County, approximately 6.3 percent of adults suffered a serious psychological distress in the past year. https://www.memorialcare.org/sites/default/files/media/Orange%20Coast%20Memorial%20Community%20Health%20Needs%20Assessment%202016.pdf
- Significant historical events
One of the significant historical events of the Hispanic community occurred in 1903, where the Mexican and Japanese workers in California combined their efforts to address the lower wages.
D) Sociocultural Considerations: The Community As a Social System
i) Socioeconomic status
(a) Income of family
The average household Income is 55,322
(b) Major occupations
Civil labor force
- Estimated level of unemployment
(d) Percent below poverty level
People below the poverty level is 15.1%
(e) People retired
ii) Educational level
The Percentage of persons with high school diploma or higher is 87.0%
E) Government and Leadership
i) Type of government (mayor, city manager, board of commissioners)
ii) City offices (location, hours, services, access)
|High school graduate or higher, percent of persons age 25 years+, 2012-2016||84.5%|
|Bachelor’s degree or higher, percent of persons age 25 years+, 2012-2016||38.4|
- Health System Considerations
The Hispanic community expects the care providers to be caring and conversant with their cultural values and traditions
i) Identify existing services
Healthcare services for chronic diseases are almost inaccessible
ii) Assessing current level of performance
iii) Availability and accessibility of specific types of health care services
Hispanic community suffer healthcare disparity
iv) Health needs lacking services
v) Extent to which health care services are overused and underused
High rate of both overuse and misuse
vi) Financing of health care
Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center (n.d.). 2016 Community Health Needs Assessment: Retrieved from: https://www.memorialcare.org/sites/default/files/media/Orange%20Coast%20Memorial%20Community%20Health%20Needs%20Assessment%202016.pdf
Refowitz, M. (2013). Orange County Geographic Health Profile: Birth Indicators (2000—2010). Retrieved from: http://assets.thehcn.net/content/sites/ochca/2000_2010_OC_Birth_Indicators.pdf
SCAUZILLO, S. (2018). Southern California still has some of the worst air pollution in the country, report finds: Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from: https://www.dailynews.com/2018/04/18/southern-california-has-some-of-the-worst-air-pollution-in-the-country-report-finds/
U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.). AMERICAN Fact Finder. Retrieved from: https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml?src=bkmk
U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.). American Community Survey, 2003 Data Profile. Available at https://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/minorities.html
U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Households and Families: 2010 Census Briefs. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-14.pdf