Sample Health Care Essay paper on Research Variables

Research Variables

Jafari, F., Ehsani, S., & Nadjarzadeh, A. (2017). Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children. BMC Public Health, 1-9.

            The above study examines the relationship between the degree of food insecurity and abdominal obesity in Iranian households. The study included 587 children between the ages of 8 to 10 years (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017). The study collected anthropometric data from the children and this included waist circumference, weight, and height. Trained nutritionists did the measurements. Abdominal and general obesity was defined according to the standards set by the World Health Organization. The Cornell/Radimer questionnaire on food security was used to collect data from parents on aspects such as socioeconomic status, physical activity of the children, and parental obesity (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017).

            The data analysis methods used in the study was logistic regression that computed the link between the degree of food insecurity in households and obesity by examining several variables. The results indicated that there is a strong association between food insecurity and abdominal obesity (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017). The dependent variable in the study was abdominal obesity, while the independent variable is food insecurity at the household level. The variables examined in the study were both continuous and categorical. Continuous variables have number values between any two intervals, while categorical variables have no logical order. The continuous variables measured in the study included waist circumference, weight, height, and body mass index. Categorical variables examined in the study included gender, obesity in parents, poverty levels, data on the amount of time children spent in physical activities, and data on perinatal period.

            The researchers concluded that moderate levels of food insecurity at the household level might increase the chances of children developing abdominal obesity. However, more studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study. The findings of the study imply that social policy has an impact on food security, and policymakers should take note.

 Grant, J. F., Chittleborough, C. R., & Taylor, A. W. (2015). Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study. PLoS ONE, 1-15.

            Strong evidence suggests a strong relationship between parental weight and the weight status of their children. To investigate this phenomenon, the above study used cross-sectional self-reports to capture data through a longitudinal study on Australian adults. The data was used to establish the link between the body shape of parents in their midlife and the four factors that influence fat distribution and obesity (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015). The data collected in the study included waist height ratio, waist hip ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index. The findings indicated that children whose parents were 40 years-plus and either overweight or obese were more likely to be obese or overweight. The study also found that children whose mothers were obese or overweight were more likely to be obese or overweight themselves (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015).

            Children with obese fathers also showed similar trends, but at a lower level. Parental obesity affected daughters more than it did for the sons in terms of waist hip ratio, waist ratio, and body mass index (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015). The study examined both continuous and categorical variables. The continuous variables include body mass index, waist ratio, and waist hip ratio. The categorical variables analyzed include work status, highest educational attainment, and occupation. The independent variable is parental midlife body shape while the dependent variable is offspring obesity. The researchers concluded that children with obese parents are more likely to be obese as adults.

Dahm, M. J., Shows, A. R., & Samonte, A. V. (2010). Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts? Journal of Food Service Business Research, 217-236.

            Fast food restaurants like McDonald have been blamed for their contribution to the rising obesity levels. The public has started to show similar concerns about casual restaurants, and the study sought to establish whether casual food restaurants should worry about the possibility of litigation for the role they play in increasing the prevalence of obesity. The study included six hundred and five students with two to four years of college or university training (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010). The study compared the eating behavior and the criteria the students used in selecting menus, and the variation in the eating behavior among the students. The findings indicated that students consumed more calories in casual restaurants compared to fast-food restaurants (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010).

            The study found that the calories students consumed in casual restaurants amounted to approximately 47.5 to 61.8 percent of the daily-recommended calorie intake. The researchers recommended that casual restaurant owners and managers should implement measures to ensure that customers access a healthy menu to avoid potential lawsuits (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010). The independent variable is causal food restaurants while the dependent variable is eating behavior. The variables measured in the study were categorical and they included demographic information of the students, eating behavior in fast food restaurants, and eating behavior in casual restaurants.

Conclusion

Obesity is a growing epidemic that has attracted the attention of many researcher. Studies have unravel causes of the obesity epidemic. However, the most common explanation center around genetics, lifestyle and the food environment as captured in the articles. For instance, children with obese parents are more likely to be obese as adults. Moreover, people who live in an environment where they can access fast food and casual restaurants are likely to be obese compared to their counterparts who cannot access fast food. Hence, efforts to lower the prevalence rates of obesity should take into consideration all the variables that contribute to the development of the disease.

References

Dahm, M. J., Shows, A. R., & Samonte, A. V. (2010). Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts? Journal of Food Service Business Research, 217-236.

Grant, J. F., Chittleborough, C. R., & Taylor, A. W. (2015). Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study. PLoS ONE, 1-15.

Jafari, F., Ehsani, S., & Nadjarzadeh, A. (2017). Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children. BMC Public Health, 1-9.