Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Population and Obesity

Population and Obesity

Previous research across seven European nations indicate that the level of obesity occurrence varies between 12% and 26%, a substantial indicator that the condition has become epidemic. In the United States, the level of obesity has increased during the recent decades (An, 2014). However, the degree of its prevalence has diminished since the beginning of the year 2000 with that of children affected leveling at some point. The spread of the disease among the U.S. adults has doubled from 1976 to 2000. Based on America’s health report, U.S was rated as a country with the highest number of obese adults compared to other nations in the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD). Consequently, the United States uses over 147 billion US dollar yearly to treat the ailment. The proportion of obesity incidence has similarly escalated in the United Kingdom since the start of 1980 and this growth is anticipated to continue (Agha & Agha, 2017). The level of manifestation is greater in men than women with a data representation of 65% and 25% respectively. Obesity enhances numerous diseases with the major infirmity being diabetes and reduced quality of life. Therefore, its management is regarded as a milestone in preventing certain ailments such as type 2 diabetes.

How Social Determinants Influence Health of Rural Populations

Health disparities influence various rural communities that reduce productivity and escalate costs of health (Andress & Fitch, 2016). Health inequities are as a result of uneven delivery of social health determinants, a state in which individuals are born, develop, reside, and work. As such, improving the health provisions in the rural populace leads to an increased populace and reduced occurrence of various illnesses.

Human Consumption

The rural populace indicates a higher prevalence of obesity and obesity-related ailments such as the type 2 diabetes. Black adults in the rural regions have a greater prevalence than their counterparts in the urban areas (Carrillo-Larco et al., 2016). Moreover, forty percent of the rural individuals are obese compared to thirty-three percent of those in the urban. This trend is linked to the rural behavioral characters like a decreased physical activity and poor dietary intake. Similarly, availability of healthy food materials is a primary challenge for most of the families in the rural environment. Research indicates that easy access to healthy food is a factor linked to better-eating behavior, thus, averting the chances of obesity (Carrillo-Larco et al., 2016). Obstacles to physical exercises in the rural communities such as low access to physical activity amenities are some of the elements that promote the significant occurrence of rural obesity.

Standard of Living

Poor living standards among the rural communities are associated with the low level of education and reduced access to medical interventions, thus, high level of rural obesity. Due to the significant rate of poverty in the rural settings, most individuals are exposed to high fat and energy intakes with little opportunities for physical exercises (Carrillo-Larco et al., 2016). Furthermore, the inability to afford healthy food because of the low-income status is some of the elements that influence the condition.

Personal Health

An individual’s personal health status regarding occupation, lifestyle, diet intake, and physical exercise are the major elements that enhance obesity. Decreased intake of cereals and increased consumption of high fat and sugar content materials have been found to a person’s health thereby, promoting the occurrence of the condition. Similarly, increased sedentary lifestyle with poor physical activities is associated with the rising level of obesity among the rural populace. This behavior facilitates the inadequate conversion of fats in the body resulting in a high degree of body fats and weight (Jepsen, Aadland, Robertson, Kristiansen, Andersen & Natvig, 2014). Moreover, poor dietary due to the inability to access healthy food can promote the use of fast foods which are the key influencers of obesity.

Obesity and Its Impacts on Rural Population and Various Factors

The United States experiences an increase in the prevalence of obesity compared to other nations making it one of the major health concerns. The condition is linked to the high occurrence of various chronic ailments such as cardiovascular, type 2 diabetes, and cancer

Rural Population

As stipulated by various health consultants, obesity has a significant impact on the rural population since it helps to enhance diseases such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and other forms of cancer. The significant occurrence of the condition in the rural settings can be considered one of the primary factors causing chronic disease (Djalalinia, Qorbani, Peykari & Kelishadi, 2015). This is due to inadequate healthcare facilities which lead to a low number of a nutritionist, dietitians, and weight management experts. As such, the condition has caused reduced qualities of lives resulting in increased mortality, hence, decreasing the populace.

Behavioral

Obesity does not only enhance numerous medical ailments but also impacts a person’s physical behavior and functional capability. For instance, the condition has been linked with a decreased quality of life in various segments comprising of physical functioning, sufficient sleep, self-confidence, and social relations (Currie, Smit, Linda & Grace, 2017). Some of the behaviors affected by the disease include poor dietary intake, lack of stress management, and a diminished level of physical exercise. 

Gene-Environmental Interaction

Obesity is developed from a very intricate interaction between several elements and the environmental factors. The gene-environmental relations occur in situations where the risks exhibited by a given genotype are linked to one or more environmental exposures that can be intervened upon such as dietary.  High intake of carbohydrates is associated with a wider occurrence of obesity among individuals with the glu27 allele obesity carriers (Huang & Hu, 2015). Studies show that a change in certain behaviors such as improved dietary and physical exercise can significantly minimize the efficacy of obesogenic carriers. 

Influence of Various Factors on Community Health and Environment

The food system comprises of production, processing, marketing, and consumption behaviors that have a major effect on the health and wellbeing of the community and the environment. Numerous health institutions are struggling to offer nutritious and healthy food in an equitable way to help create a healthy community. However, the increased pressure on land-use and environmental changes lead to a decreased agricultural production which can have a negative impact on dietary. Additionally, water scarcity in the rural regions threatens the capability of most areas to efficiently embark on agricultural developments thereby, facilitating an unhealthy population. The paucity of safe drinking water also influences the occurrence of other forms of diseases such as diarrhea and spread of infectious ailments (Tarrass & Benjelloun, 2012). Similarly, lack of water promotes unhygienic living which can easily upsurge the rate of infectious diseases.

The increasing level of population in numerous rural communities has a substantial impact on the health of the society. For instance, population growth can result in food shortages leading to increased sickness and mortality (Eyo & Ogo, 2013). Similarly, overpopulation in the rural areas can stimulate prevalence of communicable illness such as tuberculosis. The rise in population also causes pressure on land which promotes environmental degradation, hence, low agricultural production and reduced soil fertility.

Severe weather events such as increased global temperatures and precipitations result in the movement of microbial materials which pollutes various water points. As such, infectious illness can easily be spread among the communities leading to low quality of life (Lindgren, Andersson, Suk, Sudre & Semenza, 2012). Furthermore, climate change affects agriculture by reducing the level of production due to unpredictable weather patterns and increased global temperatures.  Outdoor air pollution is caused by the industrial burning of fossil fuels, hence, escalating the occurrence of other ailments.

Conclusion

The spread of the disease among the U.S. adults has doubled since 1976 to 2000 prompting the government to spend over $ 147 billion in its management. Unhealthy dietary and inadequate physical exercises among the rural people facilitate the occurrence of the condition. High level of poverty in the rural settings averts the possibility of quality education which can be used as an intervention strategy to reduce the degree of obesity. Increased sedentary lifestyle with poor physical activities is also associated with the escalating level of obesity. Behaviors triggered by obesity include poor dietary intake and lack of stress management ability. However, the significant rate of obesity is linked to inadequate health facilities leading to a low level of the nutritionist, dietitians, and weight management experts. Overpopulation in the rural areas promotes the prevalence of communicable illness such as tuberculosis.

References

Agha, M., & Agha, R. (2017). The rising prevalence of obesity: part A: impact on public health. International journal of surgery. Oncology, 2(7), e17. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673154/

An, R. (2014). Prevalence and trends of adult obesity in the US, 1999–2012. ISRN obesity, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/185132/

Andress, L., & Fitch, C. (2016). Rural health inequities and the role of Cooperative Extension. Journal of Extension, 54(3), 3FEA4. Retrieved from: https://www.joe.org/joe/2016june/a4.php

Carrillo-Larco, R. M., Bernabé-Ortiz, A., Pillay, T. D., Gilman, R. H., Sanchez, J. F., Poterico, J. A & Miranda, J. J. (2016). Obesity risk in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: prospective results of the PERU MIGRANT study. International journal of obesity, 40(1), 181. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2015140

Currie, S. C., Smit, M., Linda, M., & Grace, J. (2017). Effect of Obesity on the Work Health-Related Behaviors and Quality of Life of South African Mining Employees: A Pilot Study. Global Journal of Health Science, 9(12), 122. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320760316_Effect_of_Obesity_on_the_Work_Health-

 Djalalinia, S., Qorbani, M., Peykari, N., & Kelishadi, R. (2015). Health impacts of obesity. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 31(1), 239. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386197/

Eyo, E. O., & Ogo, U. I. (2013). Environmental implication of over population and rural-urban migration on development in Nigeria. Academic Research International, 4(6), 261. Retrieved from: www.savap.org.pk/journals/ARInt./Vol.4(6)/2013(4.6-27).pdf

Huang, T., & Hu, F. B. (2015). Gene-environment interactions and obesity: recent developments and future directions. BMC medical genomics, 8(1), S2. Retrieved from: https://bmcmedgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1755-8794-8-S1-S2

Jepsen, R., Aadland, E., Robertson, L., Kristiansen, M., Andersen, J. R., & Natvig, G. K. (2014). Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention. PeerJ, 2, e505. Retrieved from: https://peerj.com/articles/505/

Lindgren, E., Andersson, Y., Suk, J. E., Sudre, B., & Semenza, J. C. (2012). Monitoring EU emerging infectious disease risk due to climate change. Science, 336(6080), 418-419. Retrieved from: science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6080/418.short

Tarrass, F., & Benjelloun, M. (2012). The effects of water shortages on health and human development. Perspectives in public health, 132(5), 240-244. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1757913910391040