Sample Health Care Essay on Project SHAD

Project SHAD

The project of Shipboard Hazard and Defense popularly known as the Project SHAD was a sequence of chemical and biomedical test done by the Department of Defense between late 1960s and early 1970s in order to investigate into the vulnerability of the detection ships on biological and chemical warfare. It occurred after World War two with introduction of biochemical warfare. It was generally a military project even though the expertise involved in the program was more diverse. They carried out each test with a number of separate trials to justify the efficiency of each separate vessel. To make it more advance, they used various agents for one test and at times went on a test with different agents. Such agents used include sarin and VX for warfareagents, pasteurella and coxiella brunette,and zinc cadmium (United States, 2003, p. 54). The test were carried both on air and sea. The land and air test were conducted to verify the vulnerability of the vessels against biochemical warfare. They tested for high and low chemical agent reactions to the vessels.

Even though the tests were alleged to be professional and in line with professional ethics and code of conducts, it never made it to be. There were a number of violation on the ethical codes of conduct that govern a proper biomedical test during the exercise. Such include use of human being for the test, open-air testing of harmful gases, and abuse of professionalism attributes among others. During the test, army officers in command sent 23-year old soldier into the forest to its Edgewood Arsenal Forest chemical test center. They pledge to keep the plan patriotic and hurt no one. They also gave a specific time period for the expedition of the young army officer. More critical is that this plan was kept professional for the soldier and had nothing in link to the biomedical test going round. However, in the aftermath of it, the soldier was secretly planned to be used a specimen in testing the effects of the chemicals on vessel screw and other people. This was a breach of the ethical codes of conduct of any medical test program. Legible test would not use live specimens and above all a human being for biochemical test. They also intended to use strictly medical and chemical professional in the test but ended up using other nonprofessional personnel in the test. Equally open-air test conducted did not meet required test policy. It was a literal abuse to the accepted codes of conduct. Some of this agents and chemicals used very corrosive a harmful to both plant and human life. Therefore, the use of open-air test such as air strikes only opened avenues for harmful violation of professional codes of conduction.

All these action of the forces violated codes of conduct (Page, Young, Crawford, & Institute of Medicine, 2007, p. 68). If anything, a lot of precautions ought to have been taken to improve the conditions upon which such actions were taken. Use of human specimen in the forest test was exclusively improper. They would have used proper biological test of harmful gases. The same would also apply to the open-air strike and making sure that only legible professionals were directly involved in the test. It was military program but purely a professional activity that requires qualified professions.


Page, W. F., Young, H. A., Crawford, H. M., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2007). Long-term health effects of participation in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

United States. (2003). Health care for veterans of Project 112/Project SHAD Act of 2003: Report (to accompany H.R. 2433). Washington, D.C: U.S. G.P.O.