#1 Introduction to Energy
- Stored energy and the energy of position are potential energy
- Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are stored mechanical energy.
- The vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substance is called heat or thermal energy.
- The scientific rule that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed is called the law of conservation of energy
- The movement of energy through substances in longitudinal waves is sound
- The energy position such as a rock on a hill is gravitational energy.
- The movement of objects and substances from place to place is motion
- Electromagnetic energy travelling in transverse waves is radiant energy
- Energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules is chemical energy
- The movement of atoms, molecules, waves and electrons is kinetic energy
- The movement of electrons is electric energy
- The amount of useful energy you get from a system is its energy sufficiency
- The energy in petroleum and coal is stored as chemical energy
- X-rays are an example of radiant energy
- Fission and fusion are examples of nuclear energy
- A hydropower reservoir is an example of gravitational energy
- Wind is an example of energy of motion
#2 Earth spheres
The earth is made up of four major reservoirs namely; atmosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere and the Biosphere. We however have a fifth one, anthroposphere, which enables us to utilize the resources available in technical progression while influencing the earth’s system. The atmosphere –it contains gases that surround the earth. The gases are oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon as well as water vapor. Though visibly thick, its position on the planet represents a extremely thin layer. Its role is to protect life against damage from solar radiation as well as a store for the two basic gases that are important in the planet.
Biosphere- it contains organisms and the yet to decompose matter present on earth. The capability to accommodate live organisms distinguishes earth from the rest of the planets. By having a 21 percent of oxygen and 79 percentage nitrogen with a small amount of carbon dioxide the earth is able to support life process compared to other planets like Venus and mass whose atmosphere is composed of almost 95 percent of carbon dioxide.
The Geosphere- It is the solid earth that is majorly inhabited by rocks and regolith. Its also feared to be perilous for human inhabitation due to activities like landslides, earthquake and volcanic eruptions. The hydrosphere- It represents the earth’s water making the oceans, lakes, streams as well as the snow and icy space also referred to as the cryosphere. Its basic role is to amass, cleanse and redistribute water for use by the biosphere. The anthroposphere- It encompasses people and their interests and their impacts on the planet. It also includes the technological abilities, machineries and the advanced environment.
- Wheat as a growing plant uses sun as the sole source of energy. It converts radiant energy which is stored and used for growth. By through human activities that represent mechanical energy, the mature wheat is harvested and taken to the industries for production. Through a combination of kinetic energy when moving, chemical when baking grinding the wheat and thermal energy when heating the raw wheat, it is ground into flour. Mechanical and thermal energy are then employed when baking and cooking the bread making it a complete product ready for consumption.
The food consumed helps the body to generate chemical energy in form of Adenosine Trisphosphate which in turn stores the energy that is needed to carry out the various human processes. The processes are varied from transport, metabolism and also biosynthetic reactions