Sample Geology Essay Paper on Climate Change and Threats Facing Oceans

Threats Facing World Oceans

            With growing world population and globalization, oceans are facing many threats ranging from those that are caused due to natural processes to human-made factors. First is siltation resulting that affects the purity of ocean water through suspension of sand particles(Sarma, 2015). The main cause of siltation erosion taking place from the uplands as a result of human activities such as agriculture(Sarma,2015) .By controlling cultivation in areas that are prone to erosion such as steep areas and promoting good agricultural practices like digging trenches that slow the speed of runoffs, the rate of erosion will be reduced and therefore siltation.

            Second is eutrophication which is the accumulation of chemical compounds in water that later on catalyzes the growth of algae, bacteria, and sea plants. The chemical substances that find their way into oceans are from agricultural activities that apply chemicals and fertilizers and industrial discharges. These chemicals are washed by either rain water, directly discharged into oceans or by leaching. Proper regulation of industrial and agricultural activities in terms of the amount and type of farming inputs to be used can play a big role in reducing the amount of these chemicals that accumulate in oceans.

            Finally, pollution as a result of waste disposal, oil spills and nuclear weapon tests has become rampant in the recent past(Macías-Zamora, 2011). With increased transportation of oil products, the little spills that occur time and again have accumulated to higher levels affecting the air penetration into oceans. Some countries that do not have proper marine protection laws dispose their wastes into the oceans in the form of electronic waste, machinery, and sewage. The proliferation of nuclear weapons some countries are carrying tests for their weapons in oceans(Macías-Zamora, 2011). Ultimately the material used accumulates to high level posing health threats to marine life. There is need to have strict regulation and laws for those found disposing waste and carrying weapon tests in the oceans. A better way of transporting petroleum ought to be sought in order to reduce oil spills in the oceans.

Climate Change

            Climate change refers to the variation in the occurrence of climatic factors from the known patterns or the norm. It manifests in the form of delayed rain, prolonged rains or prolonged droughts or abrupt change in weather patterns of a place(Hansen, Sato, and Ruedy, 2012). Climate change is said to be caused by both natural processes such as vulcanicity and, human activities that contribute to factors that alter the elements of weather, for instance emission of gases that deplete the ozone layer that later on contributes to more penetration of sun rays to earth’s surface that ultimately lead to increased temperatures(Hansen et al ,2012).

            The effects of climate change have been and continued to affect the habitability of humankind on the planet earth because the variation is usually unpredictable therefore finding people less prepared for disasters such as long droughts or heavy rains that cause flood which sweeps the economic activities and livelihoods. Extreme climatic conditions affect the economic prosperity of a region by diverting most resources to combat disaster on top of disrupting ongoing activities. In some regions where the temperatures are said to rise or decrease below the normal, new disease has been reported. For instance the occurrence of malaria in regions of highland areas due to rising of temperature.

            To combat climate change, efforts to reduce greenhouse gasses from industrial activities, use of Chlorofluorocarbons and agricultural activities must be sort globally. This by seeking to implement clean energy and implementing carbon footprint regulations(Hoffmann and Sgrò, 2011). Nationally, every country should endeavor to domesticate international agreements and recourse aimed at combating the effects of climate change as well promote the 10% forest cover as an international minimum requirement(Hoffmann et al. 2011). At the individual level, the efforts such as tree planting, reduce refrigeration and use of carbon-based energy will contribute towards the overall goal reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


Hansen, J, M Sato, and R Ruedy. “Perception of Climate Change.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109.37 (2012): E2415-23. Web.

Hoffmann, Ary a, and Carla M Sgrò. “Climate Change and Evolutionary Adaptation.” Nature 470.7335 (2011): 479–485. Web.

Macías-Zamora, J. Vinicio. “Ocean Pollution.” Waste. N.p., 2011. 265–279. Web.

Sarma, K. G S. “Siltation and Coastal Erosion at Shoreline Harbours.” Procedia Engineering. Vol. 116. N.p., 2015. 12–19. Web.