Perfect Moral Storm: The Effects of Ethical Dilemma on Global Warming
Global warming has been termed as a “perfect moral storm.” This is because it links three key challenges to ethical activities in a common underpinning way. These challenges stems from the philosophy that changes in climate is indeed a global phenomenon and the fact that most theoretical tools are still underdeveloped in most relevant fields. When greenhouse gas is emitted into the atmosphere, it causes the climate to change, thus threatening key human values. This is often known to cause tragedy of the commons (Alan), or prisoner’s dilemma structure that is portrayed between different states. Every country would consider limiting global releases as means to reduce the risk of catastrophic effects. However, same countries, still prefers releasing unimpeded. This activity is in contradiction with the mutual understanding that “human beings depend on the environment for natural resources” (Justin). We should sustain our resources by paying close attention to Climate Change before our future generations will suffer the consequences.” Alan defines global warming as “the average increase in Earth’ surface temperature due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases”. Once released, these gases can have effects on climate anywhere, regardless of their origin.
In the recent decade, the world has experienced stronger and even more frequent storms, such as the Hurricane Sandy. Devastating droughts, flooding, and destructive wildfires in the West are some major examples of extreme temperature variance. America recorded highest temperature in existing history in the year 2012. This is 10F above the previous statistics in 1998 (Malcolm). The risks presented by some type of weather variance continue to raise even more ethical concerns.
Ethics focuses on morals and values of the mankind. It deals with those actions or activities that the majority of the reasonable people accept to be moral. The agreement is often viewed as guidelines. Example is the Golden Rule that defines the difference between wrong and right. Environmentalists agree that we should all take initiative and “fight for our tomorrow generations so that they can experience a safe environment as we would want for us.” (Alan). Several practices that minimize present situation on natural ecosystem should be put into effect. Alan points out that the Earth’s ecosystem can be prolonged once everyone agrees to make same decisions. An example of practices for sustainable economic policies that should be designed for long term is “sound environmental policy.”
Causes of Global Warming
Researches reveal that natural events as well as human related activities contribute sizably to changes in average global temperatures. Alan affirms that global warming is basically as a result of increased emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This atmospheric carbon dioxide (co2) comes from anthropogenic sources. However, Justin points out that it is not the root cause of changes in climate, but an intermediate phase between the human activities and the Earth’s dynamic systems’ response.
The concentration of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, nitrous gases, and methane in the atmosphere has increased evidently due to human activities since 1800. Martin adds that the concentration of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere has now “increased far past pre – industrial values seen from ice core spanning thousands years ago”. This increase is primarily due to burning fossil fuel as well as other land use changes over decades. Human related activities, such as deforestation, burning forests, destruction of the soil, among other are the major cause of global warming. These activities cause the release of carbon gas (co2) into the atmosphere. This is a perturbation and hence causing the Earth system to respond with certain changes.
The History of Warming
Climate has always varied throughout the history of Earth. However, any warming in the past does not necessarily imply that the present warming is also natural. For the past years, industrialization activities of human have been the major cause of climate change.
The graph above proves that the concentration of Carbon Dioxide CO2 in our atmosphere has intensified since the human industrial revolution. In the 1880 to 1937 period, the global temperature variance was consistently below zero Celsius. The variance has however been constantly above zero Celsius since 1980. This period is regarded as the “modern record” by scientists. Since then the overall global temperature has warmed showing a record of +0.60 C in the last one hundred and twenty years.
Impacts of Global Warming indented
In earlier decades, changes in temperature often indicate natural climate change that sometimes reflects long – term trend. However, each of the preceding four decades has reflected high climate change than the average of earlier decade.
Temperature to Shoot Up
Increased concentration of greenhouse gases and its effects have resulted to an overall increase in Global Temperature. Some regions may still experience wetter weather and cooling, however, the temperature of the Earth on average has gone up.
While the average global climate rises constantly, the species’ habitats keep on reducing. This results in minimal chances of different ecosystem to naturally adapt. According to Malcolm the quotient of extinction of pants and animal species, and temperature variance around the globe have been significantly faster than expected.
Sea Levels to Rise
Sea levels are anticipated to increase due to changes in climate. This is based on the fact that water expands when heated. This will affect humanity lives along coastlines and islands.
Increase in Disease and Pests
Researches blamed the increased rate in the outbreak of diseases throughout the ocean and land based animal life on climate variations. Increase in temperature makes life suitable for infectious disease, thus disrupting natural ecosystem (Justin). Change in temperature facilitates the rate of growth and survival of pathogen, transmission of diseases, and host susceptibility.
How the World View Global Warming
While sizable number of countries claim environment should indeed be a priority in expense of economic gain, fewer consensuses on whether the population should pay more to combat its increasing effects is drawn. According to Martin, individuals should be ready to pay higher prices in order to effectively deal with global warming. Positive response to this statement is widespread in several Asian publics. China, India, South Korea, and Japan believe in the philosophy of dealing with global changes by paying higher. However, some publics disagreed with this statement.
The difference in the way states perceive Global warming has led to wrangles over a new treaty. Many countries believe that change in climate is indeed a quite problem. This anxiety is more perceived in countries like Brazil, Japan, Mexico, Argentina, France, and South Korea (Martin). Other countries, such as Canada, Indonesia, Israel, Kenya, among others expresses less concern. Publics of big polluters, such as China, Russia, and United States continue to express the least concern, about 30 percent. However, these major greenhouse gas releasers have yet set national targets and goals in order to minimize emissions. Furthermore, different pledges have already been laid by these publics in the line of achieving their stated goals and objectives. The question is, do these pledges bide to actions that would stabilize the atmosphere? These goals include preaching against deforestation while boosting energy sources that can be renewed. Others, such as the United States have set regulations on limits on industrial gas emissions.
The United States has taken different actions as part of the promises to cut the level of emissions by 17 percent by 2020 (Malcolm). The actions included fuel efficiency regulations for automobiles all over the state. Other states have also designed different regulations to allow cut the overall emission in the future decades. According to Malcolm, the State of California pledged that it would cap greenhouse gas release from power plants and factories, as well as emission from cars and light trucks.
Resolving Ethical Dilemma
Resolving this dilemma requires us to acknowledge the fact that if we allow the warming to carry on, the Earth’s beauty and bounty will eventually be lost. Martin points out that “Securing Planet’s beauty for present and future generation” will impact both individual and community. He adds that human being should seek ethical guideline on climate change. Understanding principles of environment, such as Ecological Integrity, Non-violence and peace, Socioeconomic Justice, and democracy is integral. We should group our decisions in these core values.
In the context of fighting global warming, many publics have designed different means to minimize the amount of greenhouse gasses released into the atmosphere. The increasing concern of global warming saw several nations to join the United State in signing a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change policy in 1994. This treaty acknowledges that the climate system has no borders, thus international bodies are needed to explore solutions to the problems imposed by the increased emission of greenhouse gases.
One solution is to use other renewable energy alternatives. Exploring and improving alternatives to coal, heating oil, gasoline, among other fossil fuels can help reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses emitted to the atmosphere. Another solution that could help fight warming is to go green. Trees are believed to absorb carbon dioxide CO2 and in turn producing oxygen, which is a not greenhouse gas, during photosynthesis. They are an essential component of the Earth’s natural atmospheric exchange cycle. Justin points out that “one tree will absorb close to one ton of CO2 during its lifetime”. Another way would be by using less energy while recycling more products. Using products with reduced packaging will eventually reduce waste. Moreover, manufacturing electricity is one of the key origins of greenhouse gasses. Therefore, reducing the amount of electricity means producing less carbon dioxide. Eating wisely and Trimming your waste is yet another solution. Avoiding processed items while growing own food reduces greenhouse gas emission. Communication as a mean to fight climate change can have great impacts. People should share information concerning recycling and conserving energy to others.
Global warming is undoubtedly an ethical concern and the world must prepare to deal with it. Our children will be the ones to experience the worst impacts of this kind of changes. We are already beginning to feel the effect and we acknowledge that this warming is fueled basically by carbon concentration in the atmosphere. However, there are great opportunities to do whatever is right in order to protect the tomorrow’s generation. Ethical guidelines are an integral compass when faced with complex challenges. They guide us to the right choice.
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