Conflict Based on Nationalism
After the Bosnian Conflict in the mid-1990s and the 2001 September attack on the U.S, many blamed religious extremists for these happenings. However, the two conflicts are well explained from a nationalist point of view. According to Bingman, nationalism is described as a group of individuals who are loyal to their nationality or ethnic orientation, with their loyalty surpassing any religious or political ideology in their jurisdiction. However, after the purported end of the cold war, religious affiliation has played a significant role in perpetuating nationalism through propaganda. According to Rieff, the Bosnian conflict in the mid-1990s is an example of the impact of nationalism after the cold war. Similarly, Amanat explains how nationalism based on the Muslim extremism has contributed to post-war tension between the U.S and the extremist Muslims. The paper will discuss how nationalism has contributed to post-cold-war conflict with reference to the Bosnian conflict in the 1990s and the September 2001 attack on America. Though the end of the cold war was described as a global hegemony, the emergence of nationalism signaled the start of ideologically based conflicts.
Concisely, the Bosnian conflict in the mid-1990s was a scramble of the dominant Serbian state by the Bosnian Serbia and the Bosniak civilians. The worrying groups were guided by different ideologies, with religion as the key factor. The Serbs subscribed to the Orthodox Church in the East. Majority of Croats were Roman Catholics while there was a group of Muslims related to Ottoman in Bosnia (Riffe). The civil war was fought in three fronts where both the Serbian Republic and Bosnian Serbs started an aggressive seizure of Bosnia, through the infamous “ethnic cleansing “strategy where Muslims were brutally expelled from their territories. On the other hand, the Croats started evicting Serbians and claiming part of Bosnia. The two developments prompted Muslims in Bosnia to create an army that would protect its territory from both the Croats and Serbs. Consequently, by 1994, the war had claimed a hundred thousand lives, with millions turning into refugees. It was until 1995 that the international community, courtesy of the NATO military force halted the civil onslaught, and a peace treaty signed. However, the treaty was just paperwork, ethnic division and nationalism had officially taken its toll.
The religious conflict that started in Yugoslavia was to be rekindled in the September 2001terror attack on America by the Iraq-based Muslim extremist, the Al-Qaeda. Ideally, the aftermath of the September 2011, fueled the effect of nationalism on current global political and economic struggles. A section of Americans felt more endeared to their country while developing a negative attitude towards Middle East states. On the other hand, a majority of Middle East countries seems to be upholding their ideology of rejecting Western culture influence with a high regard. The ideological difference has contributed to the rise of other extremist groups such as the ISIS, Boko Haram, and Al Shaabab, who are inspired by nationalism.
Both the Bosnian conflict and 2001 terror attack on America are characterized by ideological struggles between two groups. According to Bingham, nationalism is the upholding of one’s belief as superiorcompared to your rival’s. Notably, this whatAmanat and Riffe describe in their conflict analysis of the Bosnian war and the 2001 September attack on America. The two authors quote the Serbians and Muslims purporting their cultures and ideologies as superior to others. In fact, one of the propaganda used by the Serbs in the Bosnian Conflict was that Muslims were lesser beings. Further, the Sarajevo conquer was based on an ethnic division where Muslim Serbs were singled out for an attack. Interestingly, the same strategy was adopted by Muslim extremist prior and after 2001, September attack. Their terrorism activities have been portrayed as a war against the western ideologies and in most instances they spare Muslims in their brutal killings. In overall, both the pre and post-cold war religious wars are down to nationalism where worrying groups try to show superiority over each other.
Amanat, Abbas. “Abbas Amanat “Empowered Through Violence” (2001).” Historymuse.net. N.P. 2001. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
Bingham, James. “How Significant Is Nationalism as a Cause of War?”E-International Relations. N.P. 2012. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
Rieff. “David Rieff, “Slaughter In Yugoslavia” (1995).” Historymuse.net. N.P. 1995. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.