Sample Essay Paper on Review of Arts and Humanities

Felicia Millen’s Discussion

            The abstract provides the reader with a glimpse of the topic in discussion. The author is keen on highlighting the normalcy of change in organizational and institutional contexts. She then proceeds to suggest that change is to be expected in coming years, as societies live through emergent events. It is upon this foundation that the author contextualizes change in education. Change, she observes, is implemented with the purpose of delivering positive outcomes, but it is not uncommon for negative outcomes to result. In the next section, the author attempts to describe the events that have paved way for change in educational policy of the United States. Among other policies and landmark events, the author discusses the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954); Elementary and Secondary School Act (1965); PARC and Mills (1970); The Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975; the IDEA Law; and Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. It is felt that an introductory paragraph that categorically details on the range of topics that would be discussed would be fitting. Moreover, the section that highlights the policies and events that have influenced change in the country’s education system could be improved by adding some detail on each of these events so that it is not unclear to the reader on the exact changes that unfolded.

            The author’s discussion on the developments that have occurred in both the public and private schools is quite informative. The discussion on the changes in teacher to student ratio suggests that the capacity to improve educational outcomes has significantly improved over the years. Moreover, the impact of changes in technology on technology is briefly discussed. Again, it is felt that the author could include further clarification to make her arguments even more credible. For instance, it is worth discussing the impact that technology has had in improving the delivery of educational outcomes, as well as addressing the challenges that existed in past decades when the internet and smart devices were not available.

            The author also does well to discuss ways in which the changes in education have impacted different stakeholders negatively. For instance, the author highlights that teachers are placed under intense pressure in contemporary times, as they are mandated to not only teach but also provide parental duties to their parents despite the fact that their salaries have remained low. Moreover, the suggestion that the personalities of students have largely deteriorated owing to technology is fitting for this discussion.

            Some of the other aspects of this discussion, such as the changes in the quality of the grading system could be reinforced with suggestions for improvement. I find the author’s discussion about modern day students’ complacency truthful and credible. The findings by the author are supported by Simuforosa and Rosemary (2014) who suggest that teachers must rely on a strict code of conduct in order to uphold discipline among their students. Also, in line with the author’s suggestion, the Bible should provide a guiding light for policymakers so that the quality of education is improved and the outcomes on the student are kept at an optimum. This would help in avoiding the common scenario in the modern day, whereby students feel authoritative and fail to comply with the requirements forth by their teachers.

            Overall, I found the discussion informative and thought-provoking. With minimal corrections, the discussion could be improved even further in helping the reader to understand the impact of changes in education in influencing educational outcomes. The question I have for the author is: do you feel that teachers can play a proactive role, independent of school rules and educational policies, in ensuring that learners learn and grow to become responsible adults?


Simuforosa, M., & Rosemary, N. (2014). Learner indiscipline in schools. Review of Arts and Humanities3(2), 79-88.

Elizabeth Van Pelt’s discussion

            Elizabeth’s discussion pertains to changes in the retail industry. This discussion begins by introducing the idea that brick-and-mortar stores are gradually losing their appeal, which calls for organizations to adapt to the changes. The author further suggests that the changes have both positive and negative side effects on the industry and that some companies are doing well by capitalizing on the changes. The author is of the opinion that customers must be given the liberty to choose their way to shop, which calls for accessibility, which should complement diversity and inclusion. This is a good way of introducing the topic as it equips the reader with an idea of the argument that will guide the author’s discussion.

            In the next section, the author provides an analysis of the changes that have occurred in the retail industry, such as the closure of shopping malls, changes in the shopping environment, and the advent of online shopping. Here, the author does well to provide a detailed analysis of the range of changes that have occurred in the industry and the implication they have had on both the organizations concerned and the shopping experience of customers. The author is keen on highlighting the relevance of experience-based marketing strategies in guaranteeing the survival of retailers.

            In the next section, which discusses the positive and negative aspects of change, the author suggests that the fall of the retail industry is destroying the middle class. Not enough analysis is done here and it remains unclear how exactly the industry is contributing to the shrinkage of a demographic. On the other hand, the author suggests that the closure of stores, the result of change to the industry, is pushing companies to push companies to shop online. The author could improve this section by highlighting the advantages associable with shifting operations online, such as the capacity to advertise through various social media platforms, as well as the lessened cost of operation compared to physical outlets.

            The author is keen on suggesting the areas that companies could capitalize upon in order to maximize profitability. She discusses three major areas, including diversity and inclusion, experience over stores; and accessibility. Diversity, she expounds, is an important element of the American society today and organizations must be keen on identifying the multicultural elements of the society and take full advantage. Experience, she explains, is important for helping shoppers to hold good memories of the retailer. Thus, while retail apocalypse unfolds, an enjoyable shopping experience will still guarantee that shoppers visit physical outlets. Finally, the author suggests that retailers must honor the preference of customers by providing them with different shopping options, including in-store, online, and over the phone, among others. This section is not just sufficiently analytical but is also properly detailed. It equips the reader with an understanding of some of the strategies that retailers could implement in order to take full advantage of change as it occurs.

            I feel that this author provides a proper discussion of the changes in retail and strategies for retailers to use to overcome the negative outcomes associable with the change. The arguments presented are aligned with those presented by Kowalkiewicz et al. (2017) as well as Konrad (2019), who suggest that retail must be a seamless invisible means for helping customers to achieve their goals. One question I have for the author is: how do you suggest that retailers anticipate changes in customer preferences in order to respond in the most suitable manner?


Konrad, A. (2019). Customer retail Experience as a new approach for creating dealership sales           loyalty in the automotive industry. Proceedings of The 14th IAC 2019, 240.

Kowalkiewicz, M., Rosemann, M., & Dootson, P. (2017). Retail 5.0: Check out the future.