I performed pretty well in the game. I got all the words in the test right. However, I was
unable to decipher the message. I did not realize that the coded words meant ‘did you pass this
test?’ (National Geographic Video, 2017). The game shows that individuals fail to notice
unexpected objects that pop up when focused on a specific task. For instance, the deciphered
message was visible on the screen, but I could not notice it. This inattentional blindness suggests
that our memory is sometimes unreliable.
The formal definition is that memory is “the capacity to reserve, retain, and recover data”
(Zlotnik & Vansintjan, 2019). The process of remembering is known as encoding; the process of
forgetting is known as recovering. Sensory, short-term, and muscle memory are the types of
memory. Each type has a different way of storing information and how it can be retrieved.
Sensory memory does not hold on to what it sees for long, yet it is a direct line between your
eyes and your brain. Short-term memory stores a limited amount of data before transferring it to
long-term memory. Muscle memory can store a vast amount of data but may require cues to help
Working Memory and Muscle Memory
Working memory is the capacity to retain, clasp and manipulate information in a limited
time. Working memory is divided into auditory and visual realms. The auditory holds sounds,
such as a phone number spoken aloud, while the visual hold sights such as written words or a
mental picture of an object.
The encoding of long-term memories occurs through consolidation, which involves the
movement of data from working memory to muscle memory (Derouet et al., 2019). This process
occurs over time and is thought to involve strengthening synaptic connections in the brain.
Differences between Working Memory and Muscle Memory
Working memory is the capacity to retain data for a short time. Long-term memory is
usually stored for more extended periods and may even be permanent. Working memory is
limited compared to muscle memory; it can only store a few items at once, whereas long-term
memory can store thousands or millions of items. In addition, working memory uses acoustic
ciphering, while muscle memory applies semantic encrypting. This means that working memory
has a more excellent capability of holding spoken data, while muscle memory has the capability
of remembering important information. Finally, the retrieval of information from memory is also
different. Short-term memory retrieval is typically more complex and less precise than long-term
Memory application to Career
The study of memory is a cornerstone of cognitive psychology. Memory information can
be applied to several different domains. For example, memory knowledge can be used to
improve educational practices by developing methods to help students better remember
information. Additionally, memory research can inform our understanding of human behavior
more generally, including why people sometimes behave in ways that they later regret.
Derouet, J., Doyère, V., & Droit-Volet, S. (2019). The Disruption of Memory Consolidation of
Duration Introduces Noise While Lengthening the Long-Term Memory Representation of
Time in Humans. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00745
Zlotnik, G., & Vansintjan, A. (2019). Memory: An Extended Definition. Frontiers in
Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02523
National Geographic Video. (2017). Kaltura.