Important Factors That Cause International Migration Flows
International migration is the process in which individuals move across borders as a result of push factors in their native country and pull factors to their destination. “Migration is a collective action arising out of social change and affecting the whole society in both sending and receiving areas” (Castles and Mark 24). Individuals, families or groups of people may leave a country as s result of economic pressures; social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries, conflict and political instability, immigration policies; and cultural perceptions people in developing countries have about immigration and immigrants in receiving countries. This essay critically analyses the factors that cause international migration flows.
First, economic pressures, for instance, poverty are one of the factors that cause mass migrations across borders. Migrants move from countries that are poor to those they feel that are wealthy because of the incentive structures and the benefits that are available in developed states. People migrate around the world due to push factors that are caused by economic pressures in their countries of origin. Economic factors that cause people to move from their countries include poor living standards, poverty and unemployment among many others. Migrants are attracted by pull factors in the destination countries, for instance, higher standards of living and better income. Many people in the undeveloped countries are unable to secure employment regardless of their qualifications. Some countries have better job opportunities with better remuneration and thus, attract people from undeveloped countries who look for greener pastures. People from countries that are not developed prefer to move out of their native countries as there exists no opportunity to grasp. Some people also feel that they are underused as their home country is not able to utilize certain talents that would be more appreciated in the destination country. Poor living standards in undeveloped countries are another economic factor that causes people to move across borders. Migrants feel that better opportunities exist in the destination counties unlike in their country of origin. For instance, the cross-border migration that has been witnessed in the recent past between Europe and Africa is as a result of better living standards in European countries.
Second, political factors such as, immigration policies, conflicts and civil war also cause people to migrate from counties that are affected to those that they think that are safe. Many people take advantage of weak immigration policies that are in many countries to move across borders. People move to those countries that they feel have embraced freedom and encourage individual choice of education, career, and place of residence from those countries that have limited freedom. On the other hand conflicts and political instability cause people to move from their country to those countries, they feel that are politically stable. Political instability, for instance, the failure of their governments to maintain control cause the citizens to lose their faith towards their government, thus make them migrate to other countries. Political instability has been the major cause of the most recent international migrations that have been witnessed, for instance, the Syrian conflict has caused Syrians to move to European countries. Conflicts in Middle East and African countries have caused people to migrate to European countries where they feel that they are secure.
Social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries, people also migrate across borders due to the connection that they have with people in destination countries. For instance, people take advantage of the connections they have with people in destination countries to necessitate the movement of their relatives. It is easy for a person to join other family members in the destination country due to many reasons.
The rate of human migration across borders has increased at an alarming rate in the recent past due to many factors. As borders between countries loosen, international migration continues to be a pertinent issue.
Castles, Stephen, and Mark J. Miller. The Age of Migration: [international Population Movements in the Modern World]. New York: Guilford Press, 2003. Print.