- a. The paper is about the reduction in the number of PhD economic students who conduct research in their area of study. A higher number of same level students in other fields of learning have higher publication rates in comparison.
- This paper is useful for undergraduate students who are thinking about getting a PhD in economics because it makes them question whether they are truly prepared to deal with a tough area of study, and start thinking about areas that they would conduct their research on an area that is relevant, and in which they have interest in.
2a. Variables; PhD ID, Rank, year and publication
b. Observations: 14299
c. Someone would graduate and show up in the while after six years.
3. 14299- Total PhD students
6905- non top schools (31)
7394= top schools
7394/14299 *100= 51.7%
The non top schools divided by the total number of PhD students multiplied by a 100 gives the total percentage of students in the top schools.
4. Sex/ gender does not seem to be a variable in the study because time, and the PhD level of study take the top spot for consideration.
PART A. Methodology—Real World Examples
“One in 100”
The article talks about individuals that have been jailed. Men form the highest population behind bars. While one in nine of the men are black, one in thirty is white. This shows there is a big racial difference in the individuals that are jailed in prison. While the rate of crime seems to be increasing in some states, it is reducing in states such as Texas. However, the budget for prisons seems to be increasing with no impact on the reduction of crime.
2a.Pg 8 descriptive probability
b Pg 6 conditional probability
When labels don’t fit
- This article talks about Hispanics and the need for them to fit in the society. Most Latino (Hispanics) usually identify themselves with their country of origin despite of some of them being born and raised in the United States. The cultural practices that they observe are also strongly rooted to their countries of origin.
- a. Descriptive pg3
b. Conditional page 9
“The College Payoff”
- a. the article talks about some of the things that affect the pay that individuals earn. A high academic qualification such as a bachelors or masters degree seems to be one of the best ways of ensuring one gets a high and well paying job. For example, bachelors’ degrees in fields such as engineering seem to have higher paying jobs in comparison to psychology and counseling. Although individuals should select areas of study they are interested in and are fulfilling, they should also be aware of salaries in those fields before they can make their decisions on what to study in higher institutions of learning.
- A. pg 3 conditional sampling
b. pg 5 descriptive sampling
“What’s It Worth”
7. The article is about choosing the right kind of course that will lead to fulfillment especially in terms of pay. Although bachelors’ degree holders earn money than high school diploma holders, all bachelors’ degree holders are not at the same level. Therefore, students should make the right choices in terms of choosing courses that will lead to well paying jobs.
8. Women who are in social sciences (economics) and business economics (business) do well in the labor market. This is not surprising because women have shown different levels of improvement in all areas and fields that they have decided to engage in.
9. a. pg 37 Descriptive statistics
b. pg 39 Conditional statistics
What Do You See (Concept)
10. The 4th page of the Burning Glass: Moving the Goalposts article details how different numbers of individuals have different qualifications that have landed them different types of jobs. The article clearly elaborates on how some jobs ask for bachelors’ degrees and higher when they have posted a job. For professions like nursing that requires specialized training, there is no gap between the qualifications of those that are employed, to the requirements given to individuals that are to be hired.
Part B: Career
11. The job market is not what it used to be. Employers now require higher qualifications to fill in positions in their companies. This is attributed to a higher number of individuals with bachelors, masters and PhD qualifications.
12. a. The data cites that nowadays, employers are “up skilled” and they ask for higher qualifications to fill up their positions at their workplaces. Problems might arise in replacing employees who are retiring and there might not be sufficient individuals to replace the workforce that leaves.
13. Catherine Rampell does not just give a summary of the report, but gives additional insight on her part as a writer. She shows the difference in the level of qualifications that are used to employ individuals currently, compared to before. 25- 75% of current job postings require individuals to have bachelors’ degrees, yet most of these jobs could have been acquired using high school diploma qualifications in the recent past.