Motivation in the Work Place
In the modern time, the aspect of competition in the business world has triggered major changes that have seen the employees benefit in a greater way. Best firms attract best work force in the market through reasonable approach in handling their employees. Leading organizations and firms have incorporated best strategies of motivating their employees in order to increase performance. Motivation has become a necessary strategy in organisational management and therefore a lot of emphasis has been created to enforce it in major firm’s culture. The objective of this paper is to provide a literature review about motivation in the work Place.
There are major historical theories that try to explain the impacts of motivation in organisational set up and the reasons behind the motivating aspect. The word motivation originates from Latin word ‘movere’, which is translated as, to urge or move (Hertel 3). There are many definitions about motivation that have been suggested by different authors. According to Barrons, “motivation is the process of stimulation of an individual to take action that will accomplish a desired goal” (236). Peklar and Eva defines work motivation as, “the steering of human activity towards a desired objective by means of motives generated internally in a person or in his or her environment, on the basis of his or her needs” (57). As per Peklar and Eva, “motivating is itself a process of stimulating workers through specific means so that they will efficiently and willingly perform given tasks or work towards specific objectives” (58).
There are several theorists who have tried to explain the aspect of motivation in organizations. They include: 1) Frederick Taylor, 2) George Elton Mayo, 3) Abraham Maslow and, 4) Frederick Herzberg. Frederick Taylor believed that economic prosperity could only be achieved through maximizing workers productivity (Hertel 3).He introduced scientific management as a new paradigm in the organisational approach for maximizing productivity. Frederick came up with job fractionation as a means of achieving maximum efficiency in organisation. His approach was based on observations he made from different employee. He compared the aspect of time required to finish certain jobs among many employees and came up with the best way of caring out the task (Hertel 3).
The Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is quite popular for its simplicity in the intuitive notion of humanity. Its fundamental proposition claims that human behavior is driven by the need that relates to humanity (Tsigilis 213). Maslow explains that every behavior from a person is done with the aim of fulfilling certain need. By using this theory, organizations can be able to place employees’ needs at the center of their planning in order to increase general performance in the organization (Thomas 223). Maslow theory influenced the creation of Human Resource Department that entirely focuses on employee needs and interests in organisational set up. The need for the organizations to be sensitive to employees need is quite a vital approach in motivating the employees. The human needs in this aspect may involve others like aesthetic and curiosity need.
Self-determination theory focuses its argument on human psychological needs and inner drive which forms basis of autonomous will to offer the best (Miner, “Role motivation theories” 245). By using this theory, organizations are able to create appropriate strategies that can ensure effective motivations to the employees. AS opposed to the effect of coercive strategy to increase employees’ performance, this theory suggest that the best way to make the employees performance increase is by triggering person’s inner drive. The theory makes an assumption that every individual has an innate, natural and constructive tendency to create elaborate and better sense of self (Peklar and Eva 58).
Many researchers in the field of Industrial and Organisational Psychology have been concerned with the impacts of motivation in organisational management. This has led to several experimental research conducted to ascertain the true impacts that motivation pose to organisational performance (Miner, “Role motivation theories” 233). There are different things that motivate employees depending on personal preferences. Some people are motivated by moneys while other appreciated recognition awards more than money. By understanding employees’ preferences, it becomes easier to create successful motivational strategy. Some of the most common motivational techniques that are used by many organizations includes; incentives, recognition, rewards, and gifts among others.
Motivational theories are based on the nature of humanity and are basically focused on the need to excite humanity through creative approach (Tsigilis 213). A person tends to operate effectively and efficiently his/her will power is activated (Vallerand 43). Motivation normally activates the will power within a person and makes him/her operate in a different capacity (Miner 8). A person who is willing to do a certain job performs better than a person who is compelled to do a certain job against his/her will. Therefore, by carefully identifying thing that activates employee’s will power, it becomes possible to increase performance in the organisational set up. Research reveals that motivated work force increases performance and productivity in organizations (Hoffmann 14).
Through various research conducted it has been established that dictatorial approach do not work better for competitive organization (Tsigilis 213). Dictatorial approach thrives under strict supervision, which is not necessary when motivational approach is used. The culture of using dictatorial approach was quite popular in the era of industrial revolution where people were subjected to force labor. People were subjected to slavery and compelled to work under strict supervision under their master’s wrath. However, as the time went by, such actions were legalized due to the aspect humanity. In order to get thing done in a better way, employers use motivational strategies to increase employees’ participation in the job (Miner, “Role motivation theories” 245). There are many motivational strategies that are used to compel the employee to offer better services to the organisation.
Self-determination theory focuses its argument on human psychological needs and inner drive which forms basis of autonomous will to offer the best (Miner, “Role motivation theories” 245). By using this theory, organizations are able to create appropriate strategies that can ensure effective motivations to the employees. As opposed to the effect of coercive strategy to increase employees’ performance, this theory suggest that the best way to make the employees performance increase is by triggering person’s inner drive. The theory makes an assumption that every individual has an innate, natural and constructive tendency to create elaborate and better sense of self (Peklar and Eva 58).
Research has revealed that promised reward impact short-term motivation the employees (Miner, “Essential Theories” 321). Once the employees are promised better reward, they tend to work better in order to be able to qualify to get the reward. Many employers use the strategy of promising the employees certain reward once they are able to meet a certain demand. As the employee work towards the reward, the organization benefits through increased production, which therefore increases the profits (Seijts 7)? The main focus of all business organizations is to be able to attain high profits through creating necessary influence in the market using its employees. Therefore, managements in the organizations are taking the aspect of motivation seriously and by using it, they are able to increase performance.
Behavioral perspective has a central role in human motivation because it provides the strategies of delivering effective motivation. In order to be able to provide necessary motivation to a work-force, it is important to understand the behavior of the workers. In doing so, conflicts are also avoided and organisational development is assured. Many conflicts that arise in organisation are more related to human need (O’Neil 6). Strikes that are products of organizational conflict arise mainly because of the personal need. When people are not provided with necessities in life, they are likely to become ungovernable (Vallerand 46). However, by using motivational techniques it become quite easy to lead and govern people. Application of motivational techniques in organisational perspective tends to provide employees some autonomous degree because they become committed and like what they do.
The aspect of motivation in the work-place cannot be overlooked. Motivation has become fundamental tool of increasing productivity and performance in leading firms and organizations. Many organizations have devised suitable methods of motivating their workers in order to be able to achieve certain objectives (Hoffmann 8). By harmonizing employees’ interests with the objectives of the organisation, it is possible to attain high performance. Organizations have set aside particular department: Human Resource Department, in order to handle human related issues that affect organisational performance in one way or the other (Vallerand 47). Many different approach of catalyzing workers performance been used depending on workers behaviors.
In most cases, money has been used as motivating factor that compels the employees to work better services to the organisation (Tsigilis 213). Normally, the employees are promised better pay or maybe a good amount of monetary appreciation after achieving a certain set goal. Once such promises are made, the employees tend to work for their personal gain but at the same time increasing organisational performance (Markus 69). Therefore, the employees personalized organisational objective out of motivation and ends up becoming more productive. Actually, by working more it means that the employee benefits more while at the same time the organisation increases its productivity. Other methods used to motivate employees include increasing bonuses depending on the employee’s performance. These bonuses are either converted to monetary value or awarded to the employee as a gift.
Hertel, Friederike. “Motivation in the Workplace.” (2002).
Hoffmann, Stefanie. Classical Motivation Theories – Similarities and Differences between Them. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
Markus, Hazel R., and Shinobu Kitayama. “Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.” Psychological review 98.2 (1991): 224.
Miner, John B. “Role motivation theories.” Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology: Personality and everyday functioning 1 (200): 233-250.
Miner, John B. Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe, 2005. Print.
O’Neil, Harold F., and Michael Drillings, eds. Motivation: theory and research. Routledge, 2012.
Peklar, Julija, and Eva Bostjancic. “Motivation and Life Satisfaction of Employees in the Public and Private Sectors.” Uprava10.3 (2012): 57-74. ProQuest. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Seijts, Gerard H. “The Importance of Future Time Perspective in Theories of Work Motivation.” The Journal of psychology132.2 (1998): 154-68. ProQuest. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Thomas, Jay C, and Daniel L. Segal. Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology Volume 1. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Internet resource
Tsigilis, N. “The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation on an Endurance Field Test.” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness45.2 (2005): 213-6. ProQuest. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Vallerand, Robert J. “From Motivation to Passion: In Search of the Motivational Processes Involved in a Meaningful Life.”Canadian Psychology 53.1 (2012): 42-52. ProQuest. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.