ICAO European and North Atlantic Region
Main Points: Global Air Transport Overview
Globalization has brought about changes in the transportation sectors in more ways than can be explained in few words. The onset of global communication and transportation systems that transcend the barriers of cultures and various other alienation principles has made it possible to carry out business across the world regardless of religious and social or structural divisions. In the air transport industry, the increasing need for economic success among airlines made it increasingly important for airlines to dwell on strategies for improving their carrier strengths in order to access more potential passengers. As a matter of fact, the years following deregulation of air transport under the guidance of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) saw an increase in the number of passengers ferried by various carriers as well as the reduction in airline fares across the globe (Anonymous, 2011). Moreover, globalization of the air transport system has made it possible for the growth of the commercial sector to occur. This is through continued and expanding trade among countries and the ease of communication through the increasingly globalised communication strategies.
Main points: growth of the EUR/ NAT region,
While the growth in the air transport industry has continued globally, the European and North Atlantic region has not been left behind. The region has continued to develop relative to the global context, with the development of new airports and expansion of existing ones to accommodate the increasing passenger traffic. As the growth in air transport continues, the region faces various challenges as well as opportunities for growth in terms of links and relationships in the global air transport network. The success of any air transport network is dependent on the efficiency of the flow and grid components of the network (Button, 1997). The flow components comprise of the aircrafts, passengers and crew, and airlines while the grid components comprise of the airports, stations, tracks, cables and wires. All these components work cohesively for the continued efficiency of the air transport network and thus have to be effective as a unified whole. Any shortcoming in any of the components has the potential of causing a breakdown in the entire network. The efficient collaborative operation of these components is however under the influence of several factors, some positive and others negative.
Main Points: key factors affecting links and relationship in the global air transport network
On the one hand, issues such as globalization of communication and liberalization of air transport have provided opportunities for continued air transport network growth. On the other hand, security concerns, safety and religious and societal norms have posed a challenge that needs to be transcended for commercial growth to be sustainable (Hutchings & Miller, 2016). The impacts of these factors on the region’s link and relationships in the global air transport network are immense on either direction, with the negative impacts arising due to misguided management of some of the issues. Factors that have the potential of providing opportunities for business growth such as communication strategies may also give detrimental effects if not used appropriately.
Main points: Paper objective, need for research and literature gap
The objective of this paper is to analyze the impacts of factors such as religious and societal norms, communication and language issues, rights and liberties, safety, security and infrastructure on the link between the European and North Atlantic ICAO region and the relationship between the region and the global air transport network. This is an area of study that has received limited attention leading to a wide gap in the available literature. The paper will contribute to the academia through provision of information that is currently limited in existing literature. The question to be answered by the study is: How do the outlined factors affect the European and North Atlantic region’s link and relationship in the global air transport network? This question will be answered through a review of existing relevant literature in the global air transport network and then finding the link between the global information and the EUR/NAT region.
Religious and Societal Norms
Main points: negative impacts of religious and societal norms and need for collaboration
The transformation of the world into a global village has enabled technology to transcend both societal and cultural norms distinctively. One of the cultural norms that have been overcome by globalization is the aspect of religious segregation (Hutchings & Miller, 2016). The air transport network has similarly adopted strategies aimed at transcending barriers upped by societal norms and religious cultures with the aim of improving business cultures and increasing profits. Each airline in the global context operates with the sole objective of improving profits while minimizing potential economic losses. This cannot be achieved through religious and societal segregation leading to the need for a more collaborative and globally accommodating culture across air transport networks. This has been achieved various degrees across the globes through formation of active air transport links across nations with different religious and societal norms. Within ICAO regions, the distinction in societal and religious norms has become a cornerstone of diverse marketing by airlines, with each airline priding itself in the ability to offer diversity in culture through its links (Hutchings & Miller, 2016).
Main Points: Influences of religion and societal norms on the EUR/ NAT region
The EUR/ NAT region has not been left behind in the wake of using religious and societal norms for incremental competitive advantage. One major impact of the differences in religious and societal norms within this region has been the separation of business from cultural practices. The factors based on culture have the potential of causing division rather than cohesion within the region’s air transport network. The differences have influenced airlines to resort to the formation of alliances with the objective of overcoming the barriers set by their differences. The North Atlantic Region is currently aimed at improving commercial viability through strategic alliances in which there is intense cooperation as well as code sharing to enhance understanding across religious and societal norms. Moreover, the alliances advocate for cross-cultural mobility and to improve tolerance across the religious and other cultural divides. The key objective of these alliances is to alienate the possibility of differences in religion and societal norms resulting in reduced relationship and weakened links across the global air transport network. The impacts of the two factors can thus be concluded to be cohesive, strengthening links within the region as well throughout the global air transport network through improved mobility and tolerance.
Rights and Liberties
Main Points: Effects of controlled air transport operations globally
Formerly, the global air transport system comprised of locally controlled networks which posed a challenge to economic development in the airline industry. The liberalization of local markets and the continued expansion of the liberalization of international markets based on treaties and agreements led to increased recognition of rights and liberties in the air transport industries (Anonymous, 2011). Airlines have continued to recognize their rights in the global context and how these rights or lack of them affect their operations in the air transport industry. The recognition that a partially controlled air transport network is also ineffective for economic growth led to the increase in the democratization of the air transport system globally. The impacts of liberties and rights on the links and relationships in the global air transport network have been delocalized to ICAO regions in various dimensions.
Main Points: From regulation to deregulation
In the European and North Atlantic Region for instance, the influence of rights and liberties on the region’s links and relationships in the global air transport network are undeniable. Without the air transport deregulations, operational links could only be developed based on bilateral agreements. This implied that although national and bilateral air transport regulations offered a significant level of freedom, airlines were still limited in the routes they could operate within as well as in airline fares. This means that competition among airlines only occurred through the cabin crew strengths and benefits, the frequency of flights and the quality of the airline services (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2013). This resulted in increased flight frequency but limited links as well as limited relationships since the relationships were only subject to bilateral agreements. Moreover, the air transport fares were also high leading to low the load factor.
Main Points: Key influences of liberties and rights
In contemporary times, the introduction of air transport liberties and the awareness of rights have led to increased efficiency among air lines and greater competition. The liberties have led to increased links and better business relationships across the EUR/ NAT region (Button, 1997). The main reason for the observed improvements is due to the increased liberty which has resulted in democratization of the air transport sector making the sector accessible to a greater public; increased price competition among airlines; emergence of more low cost carriers and improved utilization of airline capacities due to increased load factors. Besides these effects, liberties have also led to diversified interactions not limited by bilateral trade agreements, but controlled by treaties. Examples of such treaties are the North Atlantic Treaty and the Euro zone treaty which guide trade across wide regions (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2013). These have made it possible for air transport links to surpass the regional confines as well as to go past bilateral trade agreements. All these positive impacts of liberties have made it possible for the region to achieve greater linkage to the global air transport network as well as to build more sustainable relationships in the global context.
Main Points: Air transport security, global outlook
Issues of security have been of concern primarily since the 9/11 attack in the US. In the global air transport arena, the aspect of security has taken centre place over the years with concerns being raised on the implications of perceived security threats to an airline (Coughlin et al., 2002). The key security concerns within airlines relate to terror attacks. Airlines operating within the EUR/ NAT region and beyond make it their responsibility to address issues of security with the belief that while safety is the airline’s concern, security is more external to the airline. Various measures have been established to address the threat to security across air transport networks through improved awareness of security issues, devotion of more resources to security maintenance, provision of pertinent information during training procedures (ECAC, 2015).
Main points: Effects of security on linkages and action of EUR/ NAT region
The influence of security issues on links and global air transport network relationships is immense. This is because besides security being the concern of potential passengers, it is also a global and national concern at the least. Countries within regions where there is a higher perception of security threat such as within the North Atlantic region after 9/11 tend to put in place more stringent measures such as to reduce the potential negative impacts of security threats to their global air transport links (Coughlin et al., 2002). The European Civil Aviation Conference put in place several regulations in order to reduce security threats within their areas. The key objective was to reduce the implications of security in the global arena (ECAC, 2015). No airline would like to connect to areas with higher security threats when there are alternative routes with least perceived threats. Consequently, regulations such as the mandate to use technology for screening potential security threats; anticipating emerging and existing threats to security; developing recommendations for practice and implementing security enhancement recommendations make it possible to enhance linkage and relationships despite the available security threats. The region has thus successfully created lasting relationships through alliances and diverse linkages through various airlines based on their strategy for handling existing and perceived threats to security.
Main Points: Key infrastructure issues
The relationship between air transport infrastructure and the effectiveness of links and relationships between regions is dependent on security and safety to a larger extent than imaginable. While the issues of security and safety have taken centre place in recognizing the public’s perception about an airline, the role played by the transport infrastructure in ensuring safety is undeniable. The EUR/ NAT region has deployed immense resources towards ensuring that the infrastructure associated with air transport networks in the region are within the acceptable standards laid down by ICAO. Infrastructure influences the connectivity and usability of various air transport systems and led to significant influence on the global import and export market within the region (Button, 1997).
Main Points: impacts of infrastructure on the links and relationships
While effective infrastructure is recognized to increase accessibility to international markets and increase employment opportunities, deficient infrastructure in air transport results in opportunity costs. Deficiency in the air transportation network infrastructures refers to low capacity and/ or reduced reliability. This leads to increased congestion and need for better time management strategies. The implication is that in cases where the infrastructure is deficient, the threat to security is increased leading to lower potential for network growth and development of linkages. Despite being a key concern of the players in the region’s air transportation industry, the issue of infrastructure has remained largely under the control of national governments which offer directives on control and economic distortions to fit national budgets. While this makes infrastructure to be beyond the control of airlines and air transport carriers, it does not imply that the key players are subjected to loss. On the contrary, the designs of the various air transportation infrastructures are within the confines of international standards which make it imperative for them to be safe. The impact of this on the links and relationships of the region in the global context is such that better relationships are created through increased capacity building.
Main Points: Need for safety among airlines
The concern of safety is a global issue across airlines. With the key objective of each airline being to maximize profits, the implication of safety concerns among potential passengers is that it has the potential of reducing flow across regions and hence reducing the quality of relationships on the global transportation network. Formerly, the issue of airline safety was treated as a public policy, but this has since changed towards the adoption of more commercially directed strategies for maintaining safety. In order to achieve commercial viability, airlines strive towards a safety driven culture with the objective of luring more customers for increased profitability. The concept of safety comprises various functions such as private airline economy, government safety codes and infrastructure. The aspect of security is also considered as a player in the subject of airline safety, despite comprising of only a small percentage of the key safety concerns (Button, 1997).
Main points: concern of EUR/ NAT region on safety
In the EUR/ NAT region, safety has taken centre place among airlines, with the key impacts on the links and relationships between this region and the global air transportation network being recognized as the need for information disclosure. As passengers make the decision to use airlines for their travel needs, they take the initiative to consider the economies of airlines such as reputations, and share prices. Similarly, they also consider government regulations on safety which comprise of maintenance standards, and aircraft safety features. Moreover, greater role is played by crew working conditions and the flight times as well as the airport infrastructures in relation to safety (Button, 1997). Due to these considerations, airlines in the European and North Atlantic region have made considerable steps towards formation of viable mergers and alliances with the intention of gaining access to greater business. The impact is that customers book flights without actually knowing their carriers specifically. The concern for safety has driven the European Civil Aviation Conference to specify codes for information disclosure to client (ECAC, 2015). However, the codes do not bind the member states legally.
Communication and language Issues
Main points: traditional outlook, differences and commonalities
Traditional boundaries set by language barriers and communication difficulties had the potential of reducing interactions between countries as well as between commercial players. The aspect of communication presently plays a key role in promoting business relationships and increasing links between companies as well as between corporate bodies. In recent years, the air transportation industry has continued to expand, using globalised communication strategies to undermine ethnic and racial boundaries where they exist. The impacts of communication and language commonalities have been immense towards the development of more fruitful alliances (Hutchings & Miller, 2016). With each country desiring to develop closer ties with others, differences in languages have been overcome through the formation of cross boundary alliances which encourage collaboration and tolerance across different ethnic cultures. The combination of services has significantly increased business and links across the region’s airlines, with the result that more corporate mergers have been born.
Main Points: Effects of communication and language issues
It can effectively be said that communication and language issues have born positive fruits in terms of links and improved relationships as opposed to the expected lack thereof. The main reason for the positive impact of communication is the effects of the concept on national security issues as well as on the conduct and deterrence of national and cross boundary wars (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2013). In the EUR/ NAT region, the key issues relate to the commonality of language rather than difference, which has enabled the region to grow understandably due to the mutual desire to develop in the air transportation sector. The region’s management has used the common language to achieve unity in the fight against terrorism and thus enhance security across the region and beyond. Moreover, appropriate information systems have been put in place to encourage communication across the entire region as well as beyond the boundaries of the region. The impact of this is the growth in trade potential, increased linkage in the world air transportation system and access to better international relations.
Main points: Summary
The relationship between the EUR/ NAT region and the global air transportation network has been improved significantly despite the factors that come into play in the air transportation industry. Factors such as communication and language issues, safety, security, infrastructure, rights and liberties and religious and societal norms have all been identified to result in greater improvement in both links and relationships. However, this improvement is only dependent on how the factors are addressed with relevance to their influence on the areas of concern. For instance, communication has been used to enhance connectivity while safety issues are addressed effectively with the sole objective of improving connections. The issues of concern all contribute to greater business for the air transportation industry, a fact which has been made even more viable through mergers and alliances which address differences in cultures. Infrastructure and liberties have contributed immensely towards creation of more competitive links and enhanced international relations.
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ECAC. (2015). European Civil Aviation Conference, Security. www.ecac-ceac.org/security
Hutchings, K. & Miller, J. (2016). Nature and Culture in the Nineteenth Century Anglophone Atlantic. Routledge. Retrieved from www.ashgate.com/
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