Types of Controls That Can Be Used to Mitigate Risk
1-Briefly describe the four (4) types of controls (or the types of things you can do) that can be used to mitigate risk. Give one (1) example in the aviation industry for each of the four controls.
Engineering Controls – these include measures in design of various infrastructure associated with the aviation industry. For instance, risk mitigation can be achieved through effective runway designs that reduce vulnerability to accidents.
Training and Education Controls – This could result in the mitigation of risks associated with ignorance. For instance, cabin crew members could be trained on better customer services.
Communication Controls – Through constant and comprehensive communication with crew, it is possible to prevent certain unpredictable outcomes.
Policy Controls – putting in place policies that guard against risk effects such as policies guiding the operation of pilots and other cabin crew members.
2-In your own words, briefly describe the “Risk Assessment and Analysis” process.
The risk assessment process involves identification of the possible threats and their sources whether external or internal. This is followed by identification of the conditions which predispose the system to the probability of risk; determining the probability of occurrence of the identified threat; determining the impacts of the possible threat in case it occurs and identifying the risks associated with the threat in case it occurs.
3-Explain the difference between “Risk Mitigation” and “Risk Management”?
‘Risk mitigation’ involves the reduction of risk severity while ‘risk management’ refers to the process through which risks are controlled successfully.
4-Briefly describe the “TEAM” approach to reducing risk. Give examples in the aviation industry for each of the four approaches.
Transfer – Transferring risks refers to the process through which aviation companies protect their employees from risks through contracting various operations to other companies that are more suited to the nature of the operations required.
Eliminate – This is achieved through the elimination of processes that involve high risks or circumstances that make the processes necessary.
Accept – Accepting risks in the aviation industry is only allowed when the severity of the risk is very low and the frequency is low too.
Mitigate – Risks that cannot be transferred, eliminated or accepted have to be mitigated or reduced effectively by the aviation company which experiences the risks
5-In your own words, briefly explain the eight (8) FAAs “System Safety Process.”
The system safety process used by FAA involves:
Definition of objectives – This phase involves the identification of the safety objectives to be achieved by the end of the process.
System Descriptions – The system description phase follows the definition objectives. It involves the provision of information relating to the system to be protected through the intended safety measures.
Hazard Identification – This involves the identification of any present condition or event in the described system that could result in an unprecedented outcome or adverse effect.
Risk analysis – involves exploration of the probability that the possible adverse effect could result and the severity of the adverse affects it case it occurs.
Risk assessment – The process of risk assessment involves evaluation of the potential risks and their level of adversity.
Decision making – choosing between alterative options for dealing with the probable risk. The process involves laying down the available controls for risk prevention.
Validation of Controls – The process involves analysis of the available optional controls and confirmation of the most appropriate for the mitigation of the identified risks.
Modifying System Processes – Application of the validated and selected controls to the previously identified and described system to enhance safety.