System Safety Approach Documentation
Chapter (2) Review Questions
1. System Safety Approach documentation: This requires that the contractor and Program Manager document the system safety approach as a key aspect of the Systems Engineering Process in managing hazards.
2. Hazards identification and documentation: This is done via a systematic process that entails system software and hardware, system interfaces, the intended application or use and operational environment,
3. Risk assessment and documentation: Entails the assessment of all hazards across the system modes
4. Identification and documentation of Risk Mitigation Measures: Involves the identification of potential risk mitigation(s), and their documentation in the HTS (Hazard Tracking System)
5. Reduce risk: Involves the selection and implementation of mitigation measures to realize an acceptable risk level.
6. Verification, validation, and documentation of Risk Reduction: Implementation of all risk mitigation measures that have been selected should be verified and their effectiveness validated via suitable demonstration, analysis, testing, or inspection.
7. Risk acceptance and documentation: This should be done via the suitable authority prior to exposing equipment, the environment and people to known system-related hazards.
8. Life-cycle risk management: This entails the identification of hazards via the system safety process and maintaining the HTS all through the system’s lifestyle.
Risk mitigation entails introduction if specific measures to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects within an organisation’s operations. On the other hand, risk management involves classifying, evaluating and prioritizing of risks.
The acronym “TEAM” stands for “transfer”, “eliminate”, “Accept” and “mitigate” as they relate to risk. Risk transfer entails assigning a third party the responsibility to manage a certain risk. Risk elimination or avoidance involves making certain changes to the project in order to avoid risks. On the other hand, risk acceptance is a passive strategy by the project team to either due to its inability to identify a suitable risk management strategy or an unwillingness to alter the project management plan. Finally, risk mitigation involves minimizing the impact and/or likelihood of a risk event.
Risk assessment involves identifying possible hazards and examining what could happen in the event that a hazard occurs. Risk assessment and analysis is an analytical process aimed at gathering information on the likelihood of undesirable events happening, and the possible consequences emanating from such an occurrence.
Risk acceptance: It does not mitigate the effects of a risk but is desirable in case the cost associated with other alternatives like limitation or avoidance overshadows the cost associated with the risk. For example, insuring an aircraft may be costly, but not as much as the cost the airline would incur if it failed to do so.
Risk avoidance: This involves avoiding possible exposure to the risk in question. In the aviation industry, this could involve cancelling flights to destinations where there is protracted civil war or political instability
Risk Limitation: Involves taking action to limit exposure to risk. This can be achieved by employing additional staff to minimize fatigue and hence reduce risks due to human error.
Risk Transference: Entails transferring certain risks a third party. In the airline industry, this may involve outsourcing certain non-core operations to a third party who will in turn assume the risk involved.