1. Performance standards
Performance standards indicate the productivity and quality standards specification outlined as a requirement for every individual in the organization to enhance success in his or her new role. According to International Organization for Standardization 1003 (ISO), good performance standards should ensure suitability, fairness, competence and continual improvement within the organization.
2. Task functions and responsibilities
A good job description should clearly outline all job responsibilities and functions in relation to employee’s performances. Such requirements include communication skills and experience requirements.
3. Scope of authority and limits
This is an outline of areas of responsibilities that are assigned to every employee in the organization. Additionally, a good job description has a clear specification for the level of authority each cadre of the job should have over other cadres and the functions. There are also limits assigned to each other especially where duties overlap.
4. Job title.
A job description should have a job title to prevent ambiguity during recruitment. A job title ensures that potential candidates have a good idea of what they will be doing in the organization and at what level.
5. Job-related skills
A good job description includes a list of skills, knowledge, and capability that is required to perform the task. Technical skills, the physical requirement such as pulling, lifting, and physical exams should be included in a job description to ensure that the organization hires the right employee who can comfortably work within its premises.
A good job description should have a basic pay scale, bonuses, and benefits that accrue from employee’s performances. Remuneration is a motivating factor for most employees and therefore it is a good thing to include it in a job description.
(i) Higher ratings on the appraisal- Managers are using ratings to achieve goals contrary to the main goal of providing accurate performance ratings. An example is whereby an employee rating for best task accomplishment and customer satisfaction are raised from 60 to 80 percent. This limits the number of employees to get the appraisal.
(ii) Reduced accuracy in the appraisal process- The personality of the performance appraisal mangers influences the ratings an employee is awarded. Example, employees with dimensions of agreeableness with the manager will receive high rating due to their relationship and not on basis of performance measurement thereby affecting the accuracy of the appraisal process.
(iii) Greater halo effect-The book clearly outlines that an employee’s strength in one area affects the appraiser’s assessment of performance on other areas of responsibilities. An example is whereby an employee reports early to work every day and this rating is used as an appraisal factor regardless of another task that the employee performs dismally.
(iv) A disinclination to punish poor performance- Most organizations do not punish poor performances by their employees. Example: An employee reporting late and leaving early from work.
(v) Good interpersonal relations between appraiser and appraisee-Employee who are close to the raters are always promoted to the next level regardless of their performances and experiences. Example: secretaries to managers are always promoted to the next level due to their relationships with their bosses.
Tier 1: informal conversation interview.
This kind of interview approach occurs spontaneously in the course fieldwork whereby the respondent may not know that an interview is taking place. Questions arise from the immediate context. An example of a question includes; how many billboards did you see on the main gate of our company? What is the logo of our company as indicated on our billboard?
Tier 2: interview guide approach
In this approach, the interviewer has an outline of the issues to be covered. it is more comprehensive and systematic. An example of a question: Using less than 200 words, describe the strategies you would employee to improve our brand and state the reasons for using each strategy.
Tier 3: standardized open-ended questions
Both interviewee and interviewer interact face to face whereby the interviewer asks questions for the interviewee to respond to. This is the best choice for an evaluation. An example of a question: Why should we hire you for the job in our organization?
1. provides for the orientation new employees within the organization.
2. Provide for coaching, mentoring and active pursuit of new knowledge and learning.
3. Provide employees with mid-year progress review and feedback
4. Demonstrate an appreciation of employees’ performance.
5. Set meaningful and attainable expectations for the organization.
6. Provide employee access to the necessary tools resources and an environment supportive of performance enhancement.
7. provide for employee training and development.
Formal performance appraisals usually occur semi-annually or annually whereas informal appraisals can occur whenever the supervisor feels communication is needed. It can be conducted on a day-to-day basis. Formal appraisal ratings are usually recorded on a form indicating the ratings of the worker on the different aspect of job description whereas informal appraisals involve observations and giving immediate feedback to the employee on his or her performance.
An example of an informal appraisal: Recognition of a sales representative who has been consistently meeting and exceeding company standards.
An example of formal appraisal: promotion of a clerk to the next job group for having reached the highest annual rating of performance in the organization.
Providing positive feedback. it is my responsibility a performance appraisal manager to provide positive criticism to the interviewee. This will reinforce the desirable behavior or achievement so that the employee is compelled to perform in a better way.
Effective use of resources. As a manager, I will ensure that I recognize and reward employees who have managed to use the organization resources effectively and efficiently such as money and water saved.
Assessment quality and quantity of performance standard. This is a baseline to promote employees who have completed certain work within the set timeline and reward their accomplishment in terms of precision, accuracy and effectiveness in their work performances.