Systems of Aviation
Aviation is a critical sector around the world. According to Maier, as cited by Harris and Stanton (2010), aviation is considered to be a system of systems due to its five fundamental traits, which include managerial and operational independence of elements, possessing emergent behavior, evolutionary development, and geographical distribution of elements. Each system operates independently to perform functions such as aircraft operations, traffic management and control, and maintenance. Independent organizations also manage the systems, but they are governed by the same international regulations and operational guidelines. These systems play significant roles during flights. (Harris & Stanton, 2010).
Various systems are involved in enabling an aircraft to take off and land. The flight control systems ivolve the manipulation of the naircraft by the pilot to achieve attitude and direction. Flight control is divided into primary and secondary levels. The former is responsible for safe flights and comprises the ailerons, elevators, and rudder. The ailerons control the roll angle, the elevator is in charge of the pit angle, and the rudder controls the yaw angle (Stengel, 2016). The latter improves the performance of an aircraft. It comprises of high lift devices, such as flaps, slats, trim systems, and flight spoilers. Another flight control system, which is the basic one, is mechanical. Mechanical equipment includes tension cables, rods, counterweights, and pulleys (Moir & Seabridge, 2008). For larger aircraft, hydraulic systems are used to help overcome the aerodynamic forces. Lastly, the air traffic control system coordinates the movement of numerous flights in the sky to ensure they do not collide. Air traffic controllers guide aircraft during takeoff and landing and direct them to safe airspace during bad weather.
Aviation is a system because it involves various distinct performances that are executed independently. Flight control, mechanical control, and the air traffic control systems coordinate to enable an aircraft to fly from point A to B,
Don Harris, Neville A. Stanton. (2010). Aviation as a system of systems: Preface to the special issue of human factors in aviation. Ergonomics 53.2 (2010):145-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130903521587
Stengel, R., (2016). Aircraft Flight Dynamics – Aircraft Control Devices and Systems. MAE 331. Pp. 1-35. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331Lecture10.pdf
Moir, I., & Seabridge, A., (2008, April 10). Flight Control Systems. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470770931.ch1