Sample Astronomy Coursework Paper on Scientific Methods and Society

Question one

Part a

Scientific methods and society

It is usually very difficult to determine the expense of warming. It is prudent to presume that a century to come, our generations would be much wealthier and with more advanced technology than we have had already. The issues of civilization that we brag about today would have died and the people then would have more pressing concerns to deal with. For this and many other reasons, it is an uphill task to decide whether to trade off costs since there are a lot of uncertainty attached to it. Even the rate of discounts to be used has never been determined. According to Bob climate cost is very much likely to bring about a strong negative beta. The implications of this is a huge positive beta caused by investment in climate.

The greatest risk to take in today’s generation is that of investing in the climate. This is due to the great risk attached to this speculation. Not a single person is certain of whether the unparalleled rate of growth will continue in the next era at levels of 2%. It is even unsure as to whether we need to keep using our levels of 1% growth rate annually. The greatest challenge is that of determining whether growth has reached the plateau phase. A quick look at these calculations over a century would give more unsure results that no one has ever thought of in a lifetime. The future of our generation is thus very irresolute. The most interesting fact is the effects of growth on carbon emission. Technically speaking, an end to growth would results into an end in carbon. The most significant thing about it is the technology matter which encompasses development of windmills, nuclear plants and more non carbon sources of power.

Interestingly, the much problem posed by carbon the more income expected by our descendants who will take part in this lucrative business. Much of the profit would be earned in the development of new systems of technology to bring to an end the effects of carbon. Very high returns are expected from projects with high beta. This would later result into accumulation of lots of discount that results into less taxes. The greatest risk involved in focusing on carbon and global warming is the challenge of missing to realize the real environmental issues. Some of the issues being forgotten include the bad air in the surrounding and dirty water available for drinking. The highest percentage of the world population are affected by these environmental issues. Scientists on the other hand are working up and down trying to find solutions for the challenges of global warming. Unknown to them, issues related to social and economic hindrances are likely to thwart their efforts of finding solutions. The greatest challenge however, is the unpreparedness of the state’s governance to set a side finances for unpredictable venture. The catastrophic outcomes of carbon pricing are very great and therefore, no one is to be blamed for their skeptic character in undertaking this venture.

 Part b

Scientific involvement are the only solution to all these menace.  The governments should give lots of support to the scientist community especially the ones involved in during research on atmospheric carbon. Encouraging research would help in determining the predictability of venturing in this world of unknown. The scientist would help in coming up with better ways of tapping the profits involved for the sake of the next generations. The carbon in the atmosphere must be controlled at all cost. Tapping it for economic values is the best thing that a nation can invest. The governments have the obligation to support their researchers and scientist in order to come up with sure ways of making profits from carbon.

Question two

A drawing of the celestial sphere when it is sunset on the first day of the fall. The star in the diagram represents the sun

Description: C:UsersELIDAHDownloadscelestial sphere.png

b. a diagram of the celestial at midnight on 21st June.

Description: C:UsersELIDAHDownloadssun01.png

Question three

Part a.


Description: I-v0I = IvfI = v

Since distance = rate * time. The expression for the oscillating object can be changed to s = vΔt


When this is simplified we obtain


But since a = Δ v/ Δt, therefore


Part b

V = ( 2GM/r) -1

=( 2 * 3.8 * 1010/r)

But a = v2/r

But a 9.8 * 102  = v/ ( 27 * 3600)

Therefore v = 9.8 * 100 * 27 * 3600* 24 = 9.5256 * 107

V = 2.286 * 10 9

24 * 9.5256 * 107 = (2 * 3.8 * 1010)/ r

R = 2.526 8*1012 cm

Number of seconds in 27 days = 3600 * 24 * 27 = 2332800 seconds

Part c

Amoon= v2moon/ RMOON-ORBIT

a= 2.286 * 109/ ( 2* 3.8 * 1010 )

  = 1.7375 * 1020 cm/s2

Part d


(2 * 3.8 * 1010)/ ( 1.7375 * 1020) = 3

It is true that Newton realized that the universal law of gravitation has to be inverse square force.

Part e

M1 + M2 = 4π 2 r 3 GP2 (7) = 5.916 × 1011 kg s2 m3 r 3 P2

Question four

Part a

P2 = k * a3

762 = k * 2273

 = 0.00494 AU

Part b

The elliptical nature of the Halley’s Comet orbit is seriously extreme. One side of the orbit is seen to be so close to the sun as compare to the other side. At a point when the Comet is close to the sun, the temperatures of the Comet are considered to be extremely hot. There is high eccentricity in this comet. At some point it would be considered to be at the regions with lowest temperature.

Part c

When an object is dropped from the earth to the sun, it is first affected by the gravitational force of the earth. For this reason, its movement within the earth’s atmosphere would depend on its mass and gravity. Upon leaving the planet, it get attracted by the gravity of the sun. At this point its mass or weight has no influence on its movement. Objects of different masses would move with same acceleration at this point. The velocity of the objects depends on the elliptical orbit of the earth. The object would fall until it reaches a point where it is not affected by gravity from any other celestial body. The movement of such objects would describe the movement of the spaceship outside the planet. This therefore describes why there is need to have a unique design spaceships to ensure they counter the effect of the gravities found outside the earth’s atmosphere.