The sun rotates on its axis and has both south and north poles just like the earth. Differential rotation is whereby, the sun rotates after every 25-35 days along the equator through its poles, and the long progressive days occur because of higher latitudes in some areas. Just as the earth rotates in the same direction so is the sun. Due to this differential rotation, it provides heat to the stars, affects stellar optical absorption, and leads to shear of the tachocline (Stix, Springer & Heidelberg 250).
The sun affects the earth by warming the planet, providing heat to water bodies and the atmosphere. The radiations of the sun affect planet earth’s climatic and weather conditions e.g. atmospheric conditions, rainfall, the wind etc. The sun has many dangers to the livelihood of living things on the ground (Stix, Springer & Heidelberg 250). The risk of radiations from the sun destroy plants, leads to evaporation of the water bodies leading to insufficient water for marine animals, the ultraviolet rays (UV) radiations are harmful to human health as intense rays can destroy skin which can lead to skin cancer and sunburns.
To fuse the elements in the core, the sun uses hydrogen fusion process which entails releasing of energy in the star core which generates power to the sun. The second process is through nuclear fusion and fission which transform nucleus and breaking of large nuclei into small nuclei through this the sun fuse elements to its core. As the sun expands because it has grown “old” its core runs out of hydrogen and helium and cools down, thus losing its brightness to a ‘big red’ star. The outer layers of the sun will expand and the core contrast releasing energy leading to it being stable, and then the layers will drift into space forming planetary nebula causing the sun to shrink and cool and come closer to the earth surface (Stix, Springer & Heidelberg 250). The sun is hotter than its surface according to astronauts because of the chemical reactions that occur inside the core of the sun producing a lot of heat on its outer surface compared to the heat it produces to the earth.
Stix. The Sun’s Differential Rotation: Modern Astronomy. vol. 2 pp 248-266Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1989. Internet resource.