Sample Anthropology Essay Paper on The Epic as a Literary Genre: The Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil

Aeon, Art, and Virgil. Revealing Dream of Vergil. , 2014. Print.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=WRMBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT5&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzpN7M_eTPAhVGthoKHUYxCCc4FBDoAQgsMAM#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

In spite of Morris’ carelessness about proofreading, consciousness of the text as physical object was not absent from his hand the roman minuscule of the Aeneid represents the culmination of his research and work on the translation. In addition to the ordinary copies, there was a limited run on folio-sized handmade paper, one copy of which he promised to Murray, writing to him in March to report that he was shifting from the manuscript to the translation.

Faber, Riemer. “Vergil’s `Shield Of Aeneas’ (Aeneid 8. 617-731) And The Shield Of Heracles.” Mnemosyne 53.1 (2000): 49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

The article discusses ekphrasis in the description of shields in the epic poem “Aeneid” by the Roman poet Vergil, and examines its sources in the epic poem “Iliad” by the Greek poet Homer and “Shield of Heracles” by Pseudo-Hesiod. The symbolic importance of shields is explored, and the literary style of “Aeneid” is commented on.

Farrell, Joseph. “The Virgilian Intertext.” The Cambridge Companion to Virgil (1997): 222-38

With a primary focus on the character of the Chantyman, this essay traces a system of allusion to Virgil’s Aeneid in Eugene O’Neill’s adaptation of the Oresteia, Mourning Becomes Electra. O’Neill’s drunken and enigmatic sailor has no corresponding character in Aeschylus’ Oresteia, nor in its subsequent classical iterations. Moreover, the use of this epic archetype serves to promote O’Neill’s mechanism of predetermined causality, both by means of its thematic implications and structural position within the narrative of Aeneid 6. The allusion recalls the Virgilian unveiling of Aeneas’ familial destiny and thereby underscores the broader and inevitable consequences of Brant’s death upon the House of Mannon.

Felperin, Professor O. E. H. Virgil’s Aeneid in Modern Verse. Place of publication not identified: Authorhouse, 2013. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=70l3AgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU8tno_OTPAhUE5xoKHXMJC8k4ChC7BQg3MAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

Morris wrote out the text and was responsible for the overall design, including non-figurative capitals and decoration; he and Burne-Jones discussed the figurative illuminations during their Sunday meetings, and Burne-Jones’ drawings were then turned over to Murray for completion in the manuscript pages.

Gransden, Karl W, and S J. Harrison. Vergil, the Aeneid: A Student Guide. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=jdzi_WSmFx8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwis3NrY_OTPAhXFWBoKHUEYCLoQuwUIUzAI#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

The author examines the arguments presented in order to vindicate Aeneas’ acts, and argues that the sources cited in defense of Aeneas cannot be called upon to give a clear verdict. Instead of employing contemporary sources in a bid to exculpate Aeneas, the author uses them to explain why Vergil decided to make his hero merciless. He submits that Vergil has deliberately, and in accordance with his view of contemporary political events, created a merciless hero for his epic. his strategy of historical layering is paralleled in Morris’ other Aeneid project of the early 1870s, an original illuminated vellum codex of the poem in Latin, which also telescopes the historical trajectory of the source text by the layering of historical styles and details.

Graziosi, Barbara. Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=vCHsh9QWzLYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Inventing+Homer:+the+early+reception+of+epic.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Inventing%20Homer%3A%20the%20early%20reception%20of%20epic.&f=false

Explores the ancient reception of the Homeric poems and its relation to modern approaches.

Hardie, Philip R. The Last Trojan Hero. London: Tauris, 2012. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=kewKAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU8tno_OTPAhUE5xoKHXMJC8k4ChC7BQgxMAM#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

This title explores the many remarkable afterlives – ancient, medieval and modern – of the Aeneid in literature, music, politics, the visual arts and film. Rather than seeing Virgil as being influenced by a vague and ill-defined religious movement called “Orphic-Pythagorean”, this paper will further argue that his description of Aeneas’ descent is better understood as a product of both ancient literary and mythological texts such as Homer and Plato combined with elements from Virgil’s own religious and political context.

Henriksen, Line. Ambition and Anxiety: Ezra Pound’s Cantos and Derek Walcott’s Omeros As Twentieth-Century Epics. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=5NXCc04fw3cC&pg=PA7&dq=The+epic+as+a+literary+genre:+The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=The%20epic%20as%20a%20literary%20genre%3A%20The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

With variations and reversals, the tradition of rewriting the Homeric epics that begins with Virgil’s Aeneid repeats passages of establishing intertextual genealogy, affiliating himself with Homer, and the Aeneid with the Iliad and the Odyssey. Innumerable attempts have been made to define the epic as a literary genre.

Martindale, Charles. “The Last Trojan Hero: A Cultural History Of Virgil’s ‘Aeneid’. By Philip Hardie. Pp. Xi + 249. London: I. B. Tauris, 2014. Hb. £25. The Classical Tradition: Art, Literature, Thought. By Michael Silk, Ingo Gildenhard, And Rosemary Barrow. Pp. Xiii + 516. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. Hb. £90.” Translation & Literature 24.2 (2015): 219-227. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

The Latin-language that is in Aeneid’s  manuscript and English-language Aeneid translation complement one another. when a text’s physical presentation is more easily manipulable than in Morris’ time, digital editions provide new opportunities to weave textual history into the reader’s or viewer’s experience of a translated classic; the results might not impose themselves like a freshly illuminated manuscript of the Aeneid, a discrete and tangible object the very weight and richness of which earns it a place in the tradition of its classic text.

Mitchell, Jack. “William Morris’ Synthetic Aeneids: Virgil As Physical Object.” Translation & Literature 24.1 (2015): 1-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

William Morris’ Aeneid translation of 1875 ( The Aeneids of Virgil) is today criticized for its archaism and anachronism; it ought rather to be read as a deliberate layering of historical periods in the reception of the Roman epic. This strategy of historical layering is paralleled in Morris’ other Aeneid project of the early 1870s, an original illuminated vellum codex of the poem in Latin, which also telescopes the historical trajectory of the source text by the layering of historical styles and details. Morris’ translation should be understood as a similarly ambitious, if more democratic, attempt to create a ‘cumulative’ Aeneid

Mueller, Martin. The Iliad. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2009. Internet resource. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=bVoBAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA190&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzpN7M_eTPAhVGthoKHUYxCCc4FBC7BQg1MAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

This introduction to Homer’s poem sees it as rooted in a particular culture with narrative and thematic conventions that are only partly explained by assumptions about the properties of oral poetry. Professor Mueller follows Plato and Aristotle in seeing the plot of the “Iliad” as a distinctly Homeric ‘invention’ which shaped Attic tragedy and the concept of dramatic action in Western literature. In this second edition the text has been revised in many places, and a new chapter on Homeric repetitions has been added

Rossi, Luigi Enrico. “Dividing Homer: When And How Were The Iliad And The Odyssey Divided Into Songs? (Continued).” Symbolae Osloenses 76.1 (2001): 103-112. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.

The article presents close readings of direct references to Helen in the poem “Aeneid,” by the late ancient Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, known as Vergil, and examines the effect of the biases of the narrator and narrative context on the representation of Helen in the “Aeneid.” Topics discussed include discrepancies between recollections of Helen by Aeneas and Deiphobus due to narrator and context change, and adherence of Helen of the “Aeneid” more to the Greek tragedy character. Morris’ translation should be understood as a similarly ambitious, if more democratic, attempt to create a ‘cumulative’ Aeneid.

Prince, Meredith. “Helen Of Rome? Helen In Vergil’s Aeneid.” Helios 41.2 (2014): 187-214. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016

The article presents close readings of direct references to Helen in the poem “Aeneid,” by the late ancient Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, known as Vergil, and examines the effect of the biases of the narrator and narrative context on the representation of Helen in the “Aeneid.” Topics discussed include discrepancies between recollections of Helen by Aeneas and Deiphobus due to narrator and context change, and adherence of Helen of the “Aeneid” more to the Greek tragedy character.

Ross, David O. Virgil’s Aeneid: A Reader’s Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2007. Internet resource. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=OATIXJFtQTkC&pg=PA1&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzpN7M_eTPAhVGthoKHUYxCCc4FBDoAQgbMAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Iliad%20of%20Homer%20and%20The%20Aeneid%20of%20Virgil&f=false

Written by eminent scholar David O. Ross, this guide helps readers to engage with the poetry, thought, and background of Virgil’s great epic, suggesting both the depth and the beauty of Virgil’s poetic images and the mental images with which the Romans lived.

Smith, William and Charles Anthon. A School Dictionary Of Greek & Roman Antiquities. New York: Harper & Bros., 1851. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=9e8rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR7&dq=A+dictionary+of+Greek+and+Roman+antiquities&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUrOn_eXPAhUDVhoKHeezBh0QuwUIMTAB#v=onepage&q=A%20dictionary%20of%20Greek%20and%20Roman%20antiquities&f=false

The semantics of pain are an important and interesting aspect of any language. Ancient Greek and Latin had multiple words for pain, which makes scrutinizing different meanings problematic. The ancient physician Galen approached this issue through the use of adjectives to describe the qualities for pain, instead of the words for pain themselves. The medical texts of Celsus and Caelius Aurelianus reveal that Latin also vested particular significance in qualifiers to distinguish between different types of pain.

Sowerby, Robin. “Early Humanist Failure With Homer (Ii).” International Journal Of The Classical Tradition 4.2 (1997): 165. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

The article discusses humanist attempts to translate the Greek epic “Iliad” by Homer into Latin verse, at the request of Pope Pius II. The author looks at the attempt by Florentine scholar Angelo Politian in the 15th century, the Latin epic poem by Virgil entitled “Aeneid,” and aspects of heroism in the Latin translations that translators such as Politian were attempting to recreate. Also discussed is the 16th-century criticism by authors Julius Caesar Scaliger and Marco Girolamo Vida.

Torjussen, Stian Sundell. “The “Orphic-Pythagorean” Eschatology Of The Gold Tablets From Thurii And The Sixth Book Of Virgil’s Aeneid.” Symbolae Osloenses 83.1 (2008): 68-83. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

Among the many different sources and traditions Virgil drew upon when he described the topography and eschatology of the Underworld in the sixth book of the Aeneid it is the influence of the “Orphic-Pythagorean” tradition which is the most problematic. A recurring category of texts often used in this connection has been the “Orphic-Pythagorean” gold tablets which, it has been argued, show us glimpses of the same eschatology which influenced Virgil. This paper seeks to show how most of the alleged similarities between these short texts and Virgil’s eschatology are superficial.

Vergilius, Publius M, and Richard J. Tarrant. Aeneid Xii. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Qf7-CRp740gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Aeneid+Xii.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Aeneid%20Xii.&f=false

It is this will to make the past manifest and accessible in the present that underlies much of his extensive poetic output, including his translations. The Aeneid was Morris’ crowning achievement in this field, planned on a much more ambitious scale than his other manuscripts. Morris wrote out the text and was responsible for the overall design, including non-figurative capitals and decoration; he and Burne-Jones discussed the figurative illuminations during their Sunday meetings, and Burne-Jones’ drawings were then turned over to Murray for completion in the manuscript pages.

Morris had by 1870 abandoned the Gothic script of his earliest efforts and adopted a formal book practice. There are good general reasons, therefore, for reading the English Language Aeneid translation, which began not long before work stopped on the illuminated Latin-language Aeneid manuscript, in